The McGoodwin Music Database
Description, Operating Manual, and Technical Information

A Database Application Program
For use with Microsoft Access 2007 and later versions

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Major Topics The Main Menu General Guidelines
The Extant Works Form, I The Extant Works Form, II The Recordings Form
Report of Recorded Works Miscellaneous Technical Footnotes

 

INTRODUCTION

Welcome to the McGoodwin Music Database (also referred to as the Database).  It is intended for serious music lovers and scholars, and should provide enough depth and capability to satisfy most music collectors with large collections.  I have developed it gradually over many years of amateur musical interest.  Although preparing this database has been a rather prolonged labor of love, normal operation of the Database will generally be obvious and self-explanatory after you have tried it for a while.  You will, however, feel more confident in its use if you take the time to read through this manual.  You will see that it contains most of the information relevant to using and understanding the Database, much more information in fact than most users will actually wish to know.  I have tried to place the most technical information in footnotes at the end.

The McGoodwin Music Database is a copyrighted but "open source" project in the following sense: all programming code and design features in this database are accessible to viewing, modification, and emulation (but please see Licensure information).  The Database is based on a relational database model—it contains many related tables and is not a "flat file" database as you might create in an Excel spreadsheet.  This structure provides much greater flexibility and precision, but at the cost of transparency and simplicity.  To provide feedback, see below.  

I hope you will find this database useful in enhancing your own enjoyment of music, and that its unavoidable complexity does not deter you from using it.  

There are several goals for the Database:

(1) Persons: The Database lists the full names, years of birth, and years of death of many of the great and near-great figures of music, particularly composers—over 1800 persons in all.  Many of these persons are identified regarding typical roles they have played in music (e.g., as composer, librettist, conductor, soprano, etc.)  These persons can be incorporated into works and recordings.  It is easy to add additional persons to your copy of this database, and to select specific roles for a person for a particular work or recording.  Detailed biographical information is omitted from the publicly available version of the database, but having just accurate dates can be quite helpful in establishing the era for a composer and his/her compositions.

(2) Extant Works: The Database provides a relatively large listing of the known ("extant") works of music, selected primarily from the classical repertory.  No pretense of completeness or evenhandedness is made, and what is included currently clearly reflects my own musical tastes, personal experiences, and collection.  However, it is easy for you to add additional works to suit your own tastes and collection.  Virtually all the works mentioned in the Norton Palisca/Grout textbook referred to in Sources are included.  The works are given their historical and/or foreign language names where feasible, along with name translations, nicknames, opus and scholarly catalog numbers, keys, and other quasi-scholarly information where possible.  I have tried to go beyond the bare minimum that would be required merely to file the works and recordings, in order to provide a tool for enhancing understanding and knowledge of these works.  There are over 10,000 works and subworks listed currently, including more than 500 operas.  The inclusion of many extant works that you might not currently have or be familiar with may prove useful for future acquisitions, concertgoing, or musical education, so you might not wish to delete any of these extant works or subworks.  There is space to make general comments about works and subworks of any type.  (My works comments are omitted from the publicly available version of the database.)

(3) Recordings: The Database provides means for listing the recordings of recorded performances which you have in your collection, or wish to keep track of.  You may also optionally include which specific works are found on these recordings, along with the groups and artists who performed, the manufacturer, and other relevant information about the recording.  The Database includes a listing of over 700 recordings corresponding to my interests and exposure.  You may find that you have some of these already, and can either delete those that you do not have or leave them in as you prefer. All recordings you leave in the Database will appear in the Report of Recorded Works, unless you indicate to Omit them.  Recordings for which it makes sense can list specific extant works.

The Database began as a music-oriented project, but as it has evolved it attempts to be flexible enough to allow listing of recorded performances or "realizations" of various types and on various media, including cinema, video, and even notation files.  There is space to make general comments about recordings of any type.  (My recordings comments and track information are omitted from the publicly available version of the database.)  

(4) Organizing and Playing of AV Files and Playlists: The Database incorporates the possibility of storing audio-visual filenames and paths and playing or opening these files using command buttons and other functionalities on the various database forms. (You must provide these AV files—they do not come with the Database.  My AVFiles records are omitted from the publicly available version of the database.)

In this database, I will occasionally differentiate between AV files that are themselves audible, viewable, etc. ("experiential" files, hereafter referred to as binary AV files), and those which are text-file playlists that, while playable, do not in themselves contain experiential content (hereafter referred to as playlist AV Files or just playlists).

(5) Searching, Filtering, and Reporting: There are many features that I have included that facilitate searching for various works and recordings.  Using filters, you may view subsets of the collection (for instance, only the operatic extant works).  I have also tried to optimize the compactness and completeness of information that appears in the report which lists the recordings and recorded works in the Database

Note: Throughout this document, Command Buttons on forms that you can click on to produce an action are displayed in color Like This.  Form names are shown in boldface.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS AND INSTALLATION

CAUTION: If you are reinstalling or updating parts or all of the Database, see below regarding potential loss of data you have previously entered.

You must have Access 2007 or higher installed in a compatible Windows operating system, a monitor operating at 1024x768 resolution or higher, a reasonably fast computer, and plenty of RAM memory.  You should arrange to have no more than one row of toolbar buttons displayed in Access if the tallest forms seem to be too tall to fit.

There is no automated setup program for installing the Database, but manual installation is straightforward.  For installation details, see below.

THE MAIN MENU

This is the opening menu for the Database.  

At the bottom of the form, the Total Number of CDs + DVDs included in recordings in your copy of  the Database (and that are not marked Omit = True) is displayed, along with certain other statistics.  At the top, beginning with version 7.1, the full path to the current Data File MCMAVD.ACCDB is shown, so that you can always be certain which data file you are connected to.  (As a precaution, this path will appear in yellow if the data file is not in the same directory as the program file.)

(Note that in general, I have chosen to not create custom menu-bar style menus for the various forms, but have simply placed available custom commands as command buttons that are always visible.  This makes the forms appear somewhat complex, but available actions are more apparent this way. The menu bars appearing at the top of the Access window provide the standard built-in Access menu commands as usual (such as Edit | Find; Records | Filter; or Tools | Database Utilities | Compact Database )

(1) Extant Works

This button displays the known (extant) compositions that have been entered in the Database, whether or not they are actually contained in any recordings listed in the Database. For full details, see below.  Press Close to close this form and return to the Main Menu.

(2) Recordings

This button displays the Recordings form, listing all recordings currently contained in the Database (whether or not any particular works are listed for these recordings).  For full details, see below.  Press Close to close this form and return to the Main Menu.

(3) Recorded Works Sortable By Work

This button displays a form showing all Works and SubWorks which are currently present in Recordings in the Database.  This form facilitates searching for such works (particularly since you cannot sort by Work Name on the Recordings form).  For full details, see below.  Press Close to close this form and return to the Main Menu.

(4) Print Report of Recorded Works

This button displays the report used to print out a comprehensive list of recordings and their works currently contained in your copy of the Database.  If you have not done so recently, you might wish to first run the Diagnostics report, to look for inconsistencies in how you have entered data which should be modified before running the report.  For full details, see below.  Just close the report to return to the Main Menu.

(5) Diagnostics

This button creates a text file listing possible inconsistencies in the works and recordings in the Database and other entries you have made.  The file is stored in a temporary directory and is opened in Notepad if you have it installed.  You should run this routine prior to running Print Report of Recorded Works, and make modifications to entries in the Database as appropriate to optimize their accuracy and consistency.

(6) Manual with Guidelines

This button takes you to this program manual webpage in you web browser (several of the forms also provided this option).  This webpage is located on the McGoodwin.net website and is not installed locally on your computer. 

(7) Create Text Summary of Recordings and Recorded Works

This button creates a text file listing details of all of the recordings and recorded works in your copy of the Database.  This file includes Recording Names, Performers, Performing Groups, Manufacturers, etc. for each Recording as well as the names and details about each Extant Work you have included for these Recordings.  However, it does not list any information about extant works that are not currently found on your recordings, and is not guaranteed to include all possible data fields for recordings and recorded works, though it is reasonably complete.  This file will probably be of limited value to you, but is intended primarily for archival purposes and to ensure that you will have a readable copy of your most important data should your copy of Access become nonfunctional, obsolete, or no longer available.  Users are encouraged to run this program every once in a while, keeping the last 2 or 3 versions of the files generated (with names like AVDatabaseTextSummary20070516.txt).

(8) Quit

This button closes the Database and Access. You will be prompted to save any unsaved changes.

GENERAL GUIDELINES

The user may use standard Access menu items when appropriate (such as the Find technique within a particular field and setting Filters) at any time.  

Editing Fields on Forms

Form fields are usually displayed in yellow if they are currently locked from editing. This is the opening configuration of many fields on many forms, and serves as a protection to prevent accidental changes. If you wish to unlock and edit a locked (yellow) field, double-click on the control displaying this field. If it turns white, this is an indication that you can now change the value within that control. Check boxes do not change colors, but they appear slightly different when they are double clicked and become unlocked and editable. Some fields on certain forms can only be edited by pressing an Edit button located nearby on the form.

If you are unable to make changes to a value shown on a form by double clicking or by pressing an Edit button, you can find the corresponding data in the appropriate table and change it directly. Be careful with changing values directly in tables, however, as your changes may affect other records in ways you do not anticipate.  For example, if you change a Work name or translation in the table WNames, you will change this name or translation for all works that are currently using that exact name, whereas if you change the name of a work in the Extant Works form, you will change the name only for that work, not for other identically named works.  For a summary of where you should go (in tables versus forms)  to edit or delete a particular item or to add a new one, see below.

If you enter a revised value which is disallowed (for example, because it is illegal to be blank or would cause an illegal duplication), you can usually press "Esc" on your keyboard several times to cancel the changes you tried to make.

Some entries can be much longer than the space available for displaying them.  In this case, click in the field and use keyboard keys such as "End" and "Home" and/or the right and left arrow keys to see the entire contents of a long field.  You can also press Shift-F2 to open a larger text box capable of displaying more of the contents at one time.

While you are learning how to use the database, you might wish to practice with the various demonstration test records which I have intentionally left in place.  The test works and subworks included all have the word "Test" in them and include test categories and test versions.  They have been transferred to a test recording which also lists test groups, test persons, and test manufacturer. This test recording is currently marked with Omit so that it will not actually appear in the printed report.

Where to Enter New or Edit/Delete Existing Entries

In most cases, you will find that when you wish to edit existing items or add new entries, you will make these changes on an appropriate form. However, some tables and records are seldom changed, and I have therefore not provided a form for changing fields for all of the data in the Database.  To change items lacking input forms, you must open the corresponding table and edit the fields or add new records.  For a summary of where you should go (in tables versus forms) to edit or delete a particular item or add a new one, see below.

Expressing Unknown and Approximate Years

In most instances, any year in the database may be represented as unknown or approximate as follows: 
    Enter 0 if entirely unknown
    Enter a Negative value if approximate year.  E.g.,  -1950 signifies "c. 1950".  Some approximate years in the database are highly approximate when I lack more accurate information, and may simply place the person in a particular century.

Note that all years in the database are assumed to be AD (CE).  You should not enter a year earlier than 100 AD.

Entering Persons in the Database

Most information about persons is stored in the Persons table.  Adding persons is usually done by filling out the Add a New Person to the Master List form.  When adding a person to the Persons table, you should provide the following items (and use the guidelines shown to maintain consistency of format throughout the Database).  

PersonID

Select 6 letters where possible, letters which have mnemonic value to you.  Use only English characters and avoid diacritical marks, spaces, or other punctuation.  For example, use FaureM for Gabriel Urbain Fauré.  Note that I have intentionally used text for the PersonID rather than a number so that this ID can have mnemonic value as an abbreviation and therefore be meaningful when included in the printed report or in filenames in place of the full name.

Person (i.e., Person Name)

List Last, First Middle.  If the last name has an accent or diacritic, add the same last name using only English characters in parentheses after the first name if there is room (to facilitate searching), e.g.
    Fauré, Gabriel Urbain (Faure)

Place explanatory material after the first name in square brackets (e.g., if needed for unambiguous identification or to prevent confusion where more than one person has this or a similar name)
    Philips, Peter [b. c. 1560] 
    Tavener, John [b. 1944]
    Taverner, John [b. c. 1490]

Place aliases and alternative spellings after the first name in parentheses (to facilitate searching). Show full names spelled out in parentheses when the person used initials ordinarily. Also, if the name by which the person is commonly known is not in original birth name order, indicate the birth name order of the names in parentheses where space permits. Indicate maiden (former/birth) names with "nee" after the married last name as appropriate.  For example,
    Warlock, Peter (Philip A Heseltine)
    Scarlatti, Domenico (Giuseppe D.)
    Price (nee Smith), Florence Bea(trice)
    Reger, Max(imilian) (Johann Baptist J.)
    Tallis, Thomas (Talles/Tallys)
    Wagner, Richard (Wilhelm R.)

YOB (Year Born)

Represent as unknown or approximate as follows: 

YFLD (Year Flourished or Died)

Enter "d." for year of death (or "fl." for years when flourished if death year is not known); use "c." for approximate, e.g.,
    d. 1900
    d. c. 1561
    fl. 1690-1730

Note that all years in this database are assumed to be AD (CE).  You should not enter a YFLD for a person who flourished or died before 100 AD.

Roles for Persons

The roles that persons play are stored in numeric fields that are generated automatically by selecting one or more roles for the individual on the appropriate forms.  For all persons, the usual ("Ever") role(s) they play and for which they are especially known, such as the roles of Composer or Conductor, are stored in the Persons table (Roles field).  The specific roles ("Here") played on specific recordings by persons are stored in the Who table (RoleID field).  For technical details on how these roles are created and stored, see below.

Naming Performing Groups

To maintain consistency of format, place "the" or other common articles at the end after a comma. You may also choose to rearrange the name to place a distinctive word first as appropriate:
    English Concert, The
    Armée de Française, l', Choeur de 
    Musiciens du Louvre, Les, et Choeur
    Giovani di Nuova Cameristica, Il

Note that I have intentionally used text for the PerfGroupID field rather than a number so that this ID can have mnemonic value as an abbreviation and therefore be meaningful when included in the printed report or in filenames.

Display of Various Numeric IDs On Forms

There are various arbitrary numeric IDs displayed on the forms.  These might have been hidden by design, but are useful for database maintenance, for debugging, and to improve understanding as to exactly what the forms are doing and displaying.  On the main Extant Works form, these IDs include WNameID, WorkID, and WVID.  On the SubWorks subform of Extant Works, these include SubWorkID, WNameID, WorksUI, and WVID.  On the Versions subform of Extant Works, these include the VersionID.  On the Recordings form, these include RecordingID. On the Works subform of Recordings, these include WVID and WorksUI.  These various numeric IDs may ordinarily be ignored by the user.

Moving to Different Records on a Form

Typically, on many of the forms you may do any of the following:

However, if you are working in a subform (i.e., you have clicked in a subform field), keyboard shortcuts will only move you within the subform records for the current main form record.  To ensure that keyboard shortcuts will move you between main form records, click on one of the fields in the main form first.

EXTANT WORKS FORM

A screenshot of this form may be seen here.  This form displays works that are known to exist (and thus to be extant) though not necessarily found on any recording in your copy of the Database.  Currently there are over 6000 works entered.  Many of these works have subworks that appear on the SubWorks subform on the Extant Works form (e.g., under Bach's Wohltemperirte Clavier there are numerous subworks listed, specifically the individual Preludes and Fugues).

Displaying (Moving to) a Different Work or Version

You may do any of the following:

Displaying (Moving to) a Different SubWork

You may do any of the following when the SubWorks subform contains subworks

Sorting Extant Works

Works may be sorted by Composer (i.e., composer name), Name (of work), Category (of Work), or Year (approximate year composed), by pressing the appropriate button under Sort By.  When you sort by Year, the sort order of the works is determined by the year of composition (if one has been explicitly entered), otherwise by an estimate of the year composed based on the composer birth year and/or year flourished or died.  All years in this database are assumed to be AD (CE).   Pressing one of these buttons will also remove any filter you have set using Records | Filter.  See also below about using the Spec button to set a filter.

You can instead set custom sort orders by creating a custom filter using Records | Filter, and can also use other standard Access techniques for changing the sort order.

Limiting the Number of Extant Works Displayed

You can set a custom filter (Records | Filter etc.) to restrict the works displayed, e.g., to works by Beethoven only.  This can simplify subsequent searching etc.  The Access manual explains more about setting filters.  For example, to limit the display to only works by Gustav Mahler, find a work by him, hightlight the entire Composer field ("Mahler, Gustav"), and apply Records | Filter | Filter By Selection.  To remove a filter so that all records are displayed, use Records | Remove Filter.

You can use the Spec button to set a custom filter and/or sort order according to the query named "qFWorks_Special", which you may customize if you are familiar with this technique (otherwise just ignore this button).

Finding Extant Works

You can often find a work simply by clicking in the Name field, then using Ctrl-F and entering a key word expected to be in the work name (e.g., "Firebird" or "Treemonisha").  You can also set an Access filter (see above), for example to limit works displayed to a certain composer, or to limit works displayed to a certain keyword in the Opus (e.g., "Cantata").  

If you are can't find an extant work right away, it is often because its name has been entered in a foreign language, or with diacritical markings, and you have searched for its English name or by a nickname that has not been entered in the name.  To find such a work, press the Search Form button to open up the Find Extant Works and SubWorks form.  This form presents a full list of all extant works and subworks for the various versions (including works and subworks that are not currently listed on any recording).  The Combined Names field combines the entries for work and subwork Name, Name Translation, and Opus, all merged in one field which you may search for key words.  Use Ctrl-F after clicking in the Combined Names field to search for your keyword or key phrase.  For example,

After selecting a work or subwork on the Find Extant Works and SubWorks form, you may press Goto Extant Work to see the work on the FWorks form, or Goto Recording (if applicable) to see the work listed on the FRecordings form.

Adding an Extant Work

You can add a new extant work by pressing Add Work to open the Add Work form.  The number of works that can be added is large and unlikely to be a significant limitation.  The information that must be provided on the Add Work form is fully described below for the various fields of the Extant Works form.  Only the Composer, Work Name, Opus, and Category must be provided at this time—the remainder of the information may be added on the main form.  A new work must have a unique Composer + Work Name + Opus.  Ordinarily, the combo box listing Composers to select from lists only persons in the Database who have been marked previously as composers in their list of "Ever" roles.  However, it you press List All Persons, all of the persons named in the Database are listed in the combo box and you may then choose the composer for the new work from all persons.

If you wish to create a new work that has many aspects similar to the current work you are viewing, press Clone to open the Add Work form with an identical copy which you may then modify.

The decision whether to enter a composition as a work, a subwork of a work, or a different version of an existing work or subwork can be tricky and ultimately somewhat arbitrary.  It can be difficult to decide whether a work which is known to be part of a larger collection (such as the collection or volume in which it was published) should be listed as a work, or as a subwork of the work or volume naming the collection.  It is not possible to list subworks of subworks in this database, so sometimes you will find that you must flatten a classification hierarchy to get it to fit.  As an example, Vivaldi's Four Seasons might be entered as a work of its own with 4 subwork violin concertos, or as part of the larger published collection of concertos to which it belongs, or the individual concertos might even be each entered as separate works.  These 3 hierarchical levels cannot all explicitly be represented hierarchically in this database, so you will need to flatten the hierarchy and spell out the missing levels of the hierarchy in the comments, etc. In this case, I have listed Vivaldi's Il Cimento dell'Armonia e dell'Inventione as the main work, and have listed Le Quattro stagioni as well as the four constituent individual violin concertos such as Op. 8/1 La primavera as its subworks  Purists will observe that these line items are overlapping and redundant, but they allow you to specify any or all of these items on a recording to indicate exactly what the recording contains, in as much detail as you wish.  In practice, there is no real problem having subworks listed that overlap each other.  In general, I have chosen not to make a published collection into a single composite work containing subworks, rather than a series of individual works, unless it has a single Opus number and/or seems to have genuine musical coherence, etc. (though I have not been consistent in this).  For example, I have chosen to list Schubert songs separately even when in collections, except for the well-known song cycles Die Winterreise, Schwanengesang, Die Schöne Müllerin, etc. 

Note also that whatever category you assign to a work will apply to all versions of that work (though its subworks may have differing categories.)

For guidelines on versions of works, see below.

Deleting an Extant Work

I advise against deleting any of the works initially present in the database.  However, if you wish to do so, you can delete an extant work from the Extant Works form by pressing Delete Work.  As an obvious and intentional protection, this will only be allowed to take place only if there is no instance of this work or any of its subworks (regardless of version) on any recording in the Database.  If there are such instances, you will need to find these instances on the Recordings form and manually delete each instance from the recording(s) before proceeding to delete the work on the Extant Works form.  You can be assisted in this search for recorded works by using the Goto button of the Recordings subform of the Extant Works form—this subform lists the RecordingIDs for all recordings containing the current work.  You may also use the Goto button of the SubWorks subform, which will be enabled (having black text) only when there is an instance of a subwork of this work on one or more recordings (see below).

Playing an Extant Work

If the currently displayed work and version has at least one AV file associated with it in the Database (such as an MP3, FLAC, WAV, MIDI, M3U playlist file, or MUS notation file, any of which you must provide), pressing the right-pointing arrowhead button Play file button to the right of the work name Plays or Opens the corresponding AV file (using your operating system's default application for files of that type).  If there are more than one matching AV file, the one with the highest RecordingID (usually the most recent) will be played.  In order to play the work from a particular recording from the Extant Works form, use the Recordings subform as described here instead.

(See also "Storing and revising AV filenames and paths" below.) 

Adding a SubWork

You can add a new extant subwork to the currently displayed work by pressing Add SubWork to open the Add a SubWork for an Existing Work form.  You will be prompted for the SubWork Name, Opus, Version, Version Year, and Category.  Note that the category for a subwork need not be the same as the category for the main work (e.g., the work might be an oratorio having category = "CLVO" whereas the subwork might be an nonvocal orchestral sinfonia having category "CLIN").  SubWorks added are displayed on the SubWorks subform of the Extant Works form.

If you wish to create a new subwork that has many aspects similar to or identical to the currently displayed subwork you are viewing (and which has the arrowhead pointing at it on the left side of the subform), press Clone on the subform.  This will open the Add a SubWork for an Existing Work form starting with an identical copy which you may then modify.

Each work can have up to 255 subworks (independent of how many versions there are of the work or subworks).  Each of these subworks for a work must have a unique Name + Opus.  

You may list the same subwork name several times for the subworks of a single particular work in one of  two ways: either 
     (1) the Opus text is different for each subwork of the same name (the difference needed may be quite slight, such as adding "I." or "II."), or 
     (2) You enter different versions of the same subwork (these versions will all have the same Name + Opus).  
For example, Bach's Wohltemperirte Clavier can list multiple subworks all named "Präludium und Fuge ..." provided the Opus differs for each (e.g., "No. 15 G Maj BWV860 DC6.259" for the first, "No. 13 F-sharp Maj BWV858 DC6.257" for the second, etc.)

To create a new version of a subwork, select the subwork and press the AddV button on the SubWorks subform.  (Don't select Add SubWork on the main FWorks form or Clone on the SubWorks subform when you intend merely to add an additional version of an existing subwork.)  Select the version and enter the year optionally.  Note that new versions of a subwork will of course have identical subwork Name and Opus (since the subwork is the same) but must have unique Version + Version Year.  For example., Version "Orchd. by Composer" for Version Year 1962 and Version "Orchd. by Composer" for Version Year 1963 are permissible subwork versions of a particular subwork, and will appear as separate line items in the SubWorks subform along with other subworks for that work. 

Independence of subwork versions versus work versions: Any subwork added, regardless of which version you select for it, will appear in the SubWorks subform of the Extant Works form under all versions of the parent work. When creating a subwork, choose a meaningful version for the subwork (usually it will be the same as the parent work, typically the default value "Usual/Unspecified"). Unlike for works, however, you do not have to create or retain a "Usual/Unspecified" version for a subwork—you may create any version you like as the only version of a subwork.  Although it may be confusing to see a subwork of one version type listed as a subwork of a work having a different version, the subwork's version is essentially independent of the version of the parent work in this database by design.  When you transfer a subwork to a Recording, only the version assigned to the subwork will appear on the Recordings form, and it alone will appear in the printed report for the subwork line item.  Note that whatever category you assign to a subwork will apply to all versions of that subwork (though its parent work may have a different category).

Deleting a SubWork

I advise against deleting any of the subworks initially present in the database.  However, if you wish you can delete an extant subwork from the list of subworks for a given extant work by selecting the subwork in the SubWorks subform, then pressing Del on the far right side of the SubWorks subform (you cannot use the Del key on your keyboard for this deletion.).  However, as an obvious protection, this will only be allowed to take place only if there is no instance of this subwork on any recording.  If there are, you will need to find these instances and manually delete each instance before proceeding to delete the subwork.  You can be assisted in this search by using the Goto button of the SubWorks subform, which will be enabled (shown in color) only when there is an instance of this subwork on one or more recordings.

When you delete a subwork that has more than one version, only the version selected is deleted.  This is different and more limited compared to the behavior of Delete Work, which deletes a work along with all its subworks and versions.

Playing a SubWork

If there is at least one AV file associated with a particular subwork for the current work and version (such as an MP3, FLAC, WAV, MIDI, M3U playlist file, or notation file, any of which you must provide), you may Play or Open this file by pressing the right-pointing arrowhead button Play file button at the top of the SubWorks subform.  (The file will be played or opened with your operating system's default application for files of that type.)  This button will be disabled if there is no such file named in the Database.  If there is more than one matching AV file for this subwork, an intermediate form will open to allow you to select which of these you wish to play.  (See also "Storing and revising AV filenames and paths" above.)

Works and SubWorks Versions

Every work in the Extant Works form must have as the initial version the "Usual/Unspecified" version (for which the VersionID is 0).  This version cannot be deleted unless the whole work is deleted.   "Usual/Unspecified" means that this is the version that usually applies to this work, or that you have not specifically identified which version applies.  It is typically the historically first but still performable version, unless the user has specified or assumes some other less common and/or historically subsequent version as the Usual/Unspecified one.  Determining what is the Usual/Unspecified version for a work that has multiple potential versions can be arbitrary and undoubtedly subjective.  In general, I have tried to follow the historical priority rule (but have probably not been consistent).  For example, the Usual/Unspecified version entered of Musorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition is the piano version (and I employ clarifying comments in the Comment reinforcing this choice), whereas the version orchestrated by Ravel is listed as a separate version ("Orchd. Ravel").  In most cases, I have not included versions of composer A's works that are orchestrated or arranged by another composer B as distinct work versions of composer A unless the composer B is well known and recognized for his/her own major creative merit (as with the Musorgsky/Ravel Pictures at an Exhibition), but I have not been consistent on this.  In some cases, a work has been so changed and improved by composer B's arranging a composition of composer A that the arranged work is listed as a separate work under composer B.

It can also be rather arbitrary determining if two compositions by the same composer are different versions of the same work, or different works (or settings) entirely.  Typically, separate works (or settings) differ substantially in more than just instruments utilized whereas different versions of the same work may have similar sections though different scoring, etc.  For example, I have chosen to list as separate works (1) Vaughan Williams's The Pilgrim's Progress opera and (2) Vaughan Williams's The Pilgrim's Progress Incidental Music for Chorus & Strings, whereas I have listed as different versions of the same work the piano and orchestral versions of Musorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition.

To add a version for an existing extant work (as opposed to adding an entirely different work or setting of a work), press Add Version for This Work. Select from the list available in the combo box or you may add a totally new version name by pressing New.  The new version may have the same VersionID and Version Description as the old version, provided the Version Years differ.  You might wish to prevent a proliferation of numerous versions in this manner (since they can be quite confusing), and alternatively you can simply add a new work to the Database for a different setting, listing the way it differs from the original work by text in the Opus that makes it unique.  If you use different versions, you may wish to keep version descriptions fairly generic, e.g., by using "Orchd. not by Composer" rather than by actually providing the orchestrator's name in the description, in order to be able to reuse these version descriptions for other works by other composers. However, you can create an essentially unlimited number of versions for a given work if you wish.

A recording can only have one unique instance of a work Name + Opus + Version + Version Year (i.e., one entry having a particular WVID).  Sometimes it is necessary to create additional versions of a work in order to be sure each can be separately listed on a recording.  For example, the Gergiev recording of Boris Godunov lists 1869 and 1872 versions of the same opera.  In this case, it would be probably confusing to refer to the Usual/Unspecified version of this opera, since that determination has undergone changes in fashion over the years.  Thus I have not added the "Usual/Unspecified" version to the recording, but rather have created explicit versions "1869 Musorgsky" and "1872 Musorgsky" and have used these for listing the works on the recording.  If you have a recording of Boris Godunov for which you are not certain which version applies, use "Usual/Unspecified".  You can always add explanatory comments in the Comment field of Extant Works or of Recordings regarding what versions exist and apply.  Note that the Opus text is always the same for all versions of a particular work (having a unique Composer + Work Name + Opus), so it is not feasible to place version information there unless you are intentionally creating separate works with different Opus texts (or the version information embedded in the Opus mentions all possible versions).  

To view a different version of the same work in the Extant Works form, you need to move on the main form to the adjacent work record(s).  For example, to see the additional versions of Boris Godunov beyond the "Usual/Unspecified" one, click in the main Extant Works form and press Ctrl-PgDn, etc. 

To delete a version of a work, select the desired version in the Versions subform of the Extant Works form and press Del on the Versions subform.  You will not be able to delete the Usual/Unspecified version of a work—it must always remain in the Database as long as that work is present.

You can completely change the version for an existing extant Work, provided the original version you are changing from and the intended revised version are both something other than Usual/Unspecified.  To make this change, double-click in the Version combo box (away from the arrowhead) until it turns white, then select another version (other than Usual/Unspecified) and press Shift-Enter to save the change.  

It is not possible to edit the text of an existing version description on the Extant Works form—you must do this in the table Versions.  For information on editing Work version Year, see below.

For adding a new version for an existing extant subwork, see above.

You can change the version for an existing extant subwork using the more centrally positioned Edit button.

Transferring an Extant Work To a Recording

First display the Recordings form if not already open (press Recordings—this temporarily hides the Extant Works form).  Then select or create the desired recording in the Recordings form.  Then, without closing this form, press Extant Works to display the Extant Works form, select the work (and if applicable, the version of that work) and press Xfer This Work & Version To Rec.  This will include ("transfer") this work on the Recording.  

You may have a work (or subwork) on as many recordings as you wish, but a given combination of work Name + Opus + Version + Version Year (a combination which has a unique WVID) can only be listed once for each recording.  To have multiple versions of the same work on a recording, you must create separate versions in the Extant Works form (press the Add Version for this Work button) and transfer these.

Transferring a SubWork To a Recording

First display the Recordings form if necessary (press Recordings—this does not hide the Extant Works form, merely hides it).  Then select or create the recording in the Recordings form.  Then, without closing the Recordings form, press Extant Works to display the Extant Works form and select the work desired.  Then select the subwork desired (and subwork version, if applicable), being sure that the arrowhead on the left of the SubWorks subform points to the desired subwork.  Then press Xfer (located on the subform).  This will include this subwork for this work on the Recording.

You may have a subwork of a work on as many recordings as you wish, but any given combination of subwork Name + Opus + Version + Version Year for a particular work (a combination which has a unique WVID) can only be listed once for each recording (see above).

Showing an Extant Work in the Recorded Works Form

Press the Show in Rec. Wrks to display a form with all the extant works that are also currently found on the Recordings form.  If the current work is found on at least one recording, the first instance found will be displayed initially.  See below for full information. 

Showing The Recording For A Work Listed In The Recordings Subform
or For A Subwork Listed In The Subworks Form

While viewing the Works form, if the Recordings subform lists one or more RecordingID's, click with the mouse on whichever RecordingID you wish to display, then Press Goto on the same subform to open the Recordings form.  This will display the recording corresponding to that RecordingID and current work. 

If the Subworks subform lists one or more subworks, click with the mouse on whichever subwork you wish to display recording information on, then press Goto on the same subform to open the Recordings form and display the recording corresponding to that subwork.  If there is more than one recording containing this subwork, an intermediate form will open to allow you to select which of these you wish to display the recording for. 

Playing a Work From The Recordings SubForm

If the Recordings subform lists one or more RecordingID's, you may click with the mouse to select the RecordingID that you are interested in playing.  If there is an AV file corresponding with this recording and the current work and version (such as an MP3, FLAC, WAV, MIDI, M3U playlist file, or MUS notation file, any of which you must provide), you may Play or Open this file by pressing the right-pointing arrowhead button Play file button at the top of the Recordings subform.  The operating system's default player or viewer program for this type of file will be invoked to play or view the file.  This button will be disabled if there is no such AV File entry in the Database

Work and SubWork Names: Formatting Conventions and Revision of Names

I have tried to use and recommend adherence to these guidelines to maintain consistency of format in naming works and subworks throughout the Database:

Carnaval romain, Le (Roman Carnival Overture)
Götterdämmerung, Die (The Twilight of the Gods, Gotterdammerung)
Three 3 Places in New England
Acht Lieder (8 Eight Songs)
Trois poésies de la lyrique japonaise (Three 3 Japanese Lyrics)

Note that any particular name may in theory be used for either works or subworks or both, though in most cases this will not make much sense.

To revise a Name for an existing extant work, press Edit on the main Extant Works form.  This will allow you to change the text of the name applying solely to this work.  Other works and subworks using the same original name text will retain their original text and not be modified.  For example, there may be versions of Laudate pueri by both by Monteverdi and Handel.  If you changed the spelling in the Extant Works form for the Monteverdi composition to Laudate pueri (Dominum), the Handel composition would retain the name Laudate pueri.  If you wish to change the name for all instances of the usage of a particular name, find the name and change it in the table WNames.  If you change Laudate pueri in the WNames table to Laudate pueri Dominum, you will be changing how this name is spelled for both Monteverdi and for Handel, and this might not always be what you intend.

To revise a Name for an existing extant subwork, select the desired subwork, making sure the arrowhead on the left of the SubWorks subform points to this subwork, and then press the more left-positioned Edit button of the SubWorks subform.  Just like the names for works, this will allow you to change the name text applying solely to this subwork.  Other works and subworks using the same exact name text will retain the original text.  If you wish to change the name text for all instances of the usage of a name, change it in the table WNames.  (To edit the name translation for a subwork, see here.)

Each work in the Database must be unique, based on the uniqueness of the combination of the Composer + Work Name + Opus.  A work may have many versions however.

Name Translation (Name Comment) Formatting Conventions and Revision

Include the translation of the name of the work, and any brief comment regarding the source of the text of the name as appropriate, e.g.
    Name: Super flumina Babilonis/Babylonis
    Translation: By the waters of Babylon we sat down and wept (Psalm 136/137)

To revise a Name Translation (Comment) for an existing extant work, be sure the "Transl." field is editable (double-click to make it white if it is yellow), then edit directly in the field and press Shift-Enter to save your changes.  Note that, unlike the Name field, this change will apply to all works and subworks using the same name (i.e, having the same WNameID) including those by other composers, so be careful you do not do more than you intended.  

To revise a Name Translation for an existing extant subwork, select the desired subwork, making sure the arrowhead on the left of the SubWorks subform points to this subwork, and then press the more centrally positioned Edit button of the SubWorks subform.  Note that a name translation change will apply to all works and subworks using the same name (i.e, having the same WNameID) including those by other composers, so be careful you do not do more than you intended.  

Opus Formatting Conventions and Revision

The Opus field should hold all important additional information that helps to identify the work and establish its uniqueness.  The text that may be entered is not confined to the actual Opus of a work.  Each work in the Database must be unique, based on the uniqueness of the combination of the Composer + Work Name + Opus. In other words, no two works can have identical Composer + Work Name + Opus, regardless of the contents of any other fields (though there may be multiple versions of same). 

You may add detailed qualifiers in Work name instead of in Opus where essential for esthetics or to avoid confusion.

Place the work's key, nickname, and other naming details etc. in Opus rather than in the Name where possible, to keep Work Names generic and reusable where feasible, e.g., 
    Name: "Symphony No. 6" (generic, used for several works including by other composers)
    Opus: Op. 58 C min DC2.6 (specific to this work)

List Opus items in this recommended order  if you wish to maintain consistency with the formatting style I have used:

  1. Sequence Number (to establish the sort order of subworks when sorting by Opus, e.g., "02a.", "02b.", etc.), Book, Set, Volume, Series, or Setting number (e.g., Book 2; Series 1; Setting II), e.g, 

       Name: Structures
       Opus: Livre/Book 1 for 2 piano J18 DC7.10 NoOp

       Name: Mikrokosmos
       Opus: Vol. I-VI for Solo Piano BB105 Sz73 DC8.300 NoOp

       Name: An die Hoffnung (On Hope)    
       Opus: Setting II Op. 94 Lied DC15.71
            [i.e., the 2nd setting by Beethoven of a lied by the same name]

       Name: Act 1 after Prelude
       Opus: 1b2. (Second part of Act I after prelude)

  2. Opus Number (after "Op. ") plus optional slash and number of the subwork applicable to this opus, e.g.

       Opus: Op. 9/2 E-flat Maj "Murmures de la Seine 2" B54/2 DC9.2
            [i.e., number 2 of several Nocturnes in Op. 9]

  3. Work Number (if any). The Work Number should follow the Opus number, if any, if this is one of several numbered works for this Opus. Always precede it with "No. " unless space is limited or convention suggests the alternate form, namely following the Opus Number with a slash followed by the Work Number (e.g., Op. 9/2). If the Op. number applies only to this Work Number, the Work Number should be listed first.  E.g.,:

       Name: Skogen sover (The forest sleeps)
       Opus: Op. 28 No. 6 for 1v+piano NoDC
             [this named work is one of several Work Numbers for Op. 28]

       Opus: Op. 9/2 E-flat Maj "Murmures de la Seine 2" B54/2 DC9.2
             [number 2 of several Nocturnes for Op. 9]

       Name: Romeo and Juliet Suite (Romeo i Dzhuletta)
       Opus: No. 2 Op. 64ter Nos. 1-7 DC3.48 
             [this is the only Work Number that applies to this Opus number]

  4. Key (if known and meaningful; use hyphen before "sharp" or "flat" and do not spell out Maj or min further).  You may use a sharp ♯ or flat ♭ symbol in Access 2007 and later, though I tend to avoid this.  I avoid the common convention of writing minor key letters in lower case and major keys in upper case, thus I write A Maj and A min for greatest clarity. E.g.,
      
       Opus: F Maj BWV1046a DC3.7
       Opus: F-sharp min for Clavier BWV910 DC6.315
       Opus: Op. 5 B-flat min DC7.1

  5. Nickname (if not so designated by composer) in quotes, e.g.,

       Opus: Op. 17 C min "Little Russian" DC2.2
       [If the composer designated a nickname, such as "quasi una fantasia", it should go in the work's name or name translation.]

  6. Attribution of a work listed under a particular composer to another composer as appropriate, e.g.,

       Opus: G Maj (Intro. only, rest by M. Haydn) K444(K425a) DC2.52
       Opus: Sequence for Solemn Mass of Easter Day attr. Wipo
       Opus: BWV508 DC10.71 (attr. Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel) NoOp

  7. Genre or Subgenre Keywords, Acts, Scoring, and other distinguishing information as appropriate, e.g.,

       Opus: For 16vv+orch. DC9.12 NoOp
       Opus: For Harpsichord/piano & orch. Schmidt49 DC3.1
       Opus: Opéra-ballet Prol. + 3 entrées DC1.5
       Opus: Motet a 4 fr. Gradualia: Proper for 3rd Christmas Mass NoOp
       Opus: Opéra comique 3-acts NoOpOrDC
       Opus: Concerto for pf-str, chbr orch L452 NoOp
       Opus: Cantus firmus tenor mass 4vv
       Opus: Trio sonata NoOpOrDC

  8. Catalog Number assigned by musicologists and/or Da Capo [DC] catalog [keep compact and avoid spaces]
       For Harpsichord/piano & orch. Schmidt49 DC3.1 
      
        Opus: RV638
            [not as RV 638]
       Opus: K234
             [Köchel number; not as K. 234; provide K and K6]
       C Maj K314 K6:285d DC14.3
             [provide K1 and K6 Köchel numbers where they differ]
       DC10.21
            [Da Capo Catalog of Classical Music Compositions number]

  9. Indicate if there is no Opus and/or Da Capo number with "NoOpOrDC", "NoOp", or "NoDC" where appropriate.  In recent years, I no longer list the Da Capo number.

To revise an "Opus" entry for an existing extant work, be sure the "Opus" field is editable (double-click to make it white if it is yellow), then edit directly in the field and press Shift-Enter to save your changes.  This change will apply to all versions of this work (i.e., all versions having the same Composer + Work Name + Opus).  You will not be able to save revisions to the work Opus if by doing so you would be creating a duplicate work (i.e., two works having the same Composer + Work Name + Opus).

To revise an "Opus" entry for an existing extant subwork, select the desired subwork, making sure the arrowhead on the left of the SubWorks subform points to this subwork, and then press the more centrally positioned Edit button of the SubWorks subform.  Note that this change will apply to all versions of subworks of this work having the same subwork name.  You will not be able to save revisions to the subwork Opus if by doing so you would be creating a duplicate subwork (i.e., two subworks having the same SubWork Name + Opus as another subwork of the work). 

Composer and Librettist Conventions and Revision

It is not possible to list more than one composer or librettist for a Work under composer or librettist respectively (unless you specifically create a combined person in the Persons table, which is not advised).  Works with multiple composers or librettists may be listed as "Multiple, Miscellaneous, or Complex" and the details explained in a comment or in the Opus.  Works of uncertain authorship may be listed under "Anonymous", "Anonymous 19th Century", "Not Available/Not Applicable/Unknown", "Multiple, Miscellaneous, or Complex", "Traditional", etc.  In many cases, I have listed works in one of these ways simply out of ignorance or uncertainty regarding the actual composer or author, the name of which may be well known to others. (In the case of folk and traditional music, it is often difficult to know whether a person whose name is given for a piece of music is simply an elaborate arranger of a traditional work or the recognized original composer of it.)  The Librettist for works using Biblical passages is usually left blank.

To revise the Composer (and/or librettist) for an existing extant work, Press Change Composer or Librettist.  Select the appropriate person with the combo box (add a new person if necessary with New),  check the appropriate boxes (i.e., Composer and/or Librettist), and press AcceptIf you add a new composer, follow the conventions for naming persons and PersonIDs described above.

You cannot revise the composer or librettist solely for a subwork or a different version of the same work—they are assumed to be the same as for the parent work.  Instead, you must enter a new extant work to accommodate the different composer or librettist of the subwork (or you can simply use "Multiple, Miscellaneous, or Complex" and annotate the work comment or revise the subwork Opus to indicate the details, which is usually preferable.)

You can directly modify the spelling of the composer's name, date of birth, and when he/she flourished/died on the Extant Works form.  Be sure the field in question is editable (double-click if yellow), and follow the conventions for entering persons etc. described above.

All works must have a composer, even if it is simply Anonymous", "Not Available/Not Applicable/Unknown", etc.  You cannot completely delete the composer from a work, though of course you can change it.  Each work in the Database must be unique, based on the uniqueness of the combination of the Work Name + Composer + Opus, though differing versions are possible.

You can delete the librettist previously entered for a work by pressing Del next to the name of the librettist.

Intrinsic Personal Rating of an Extant Work and SubWork

Using the Rating text box, each work may be rated 0 - 10 as to your personal opinion of the work's intrinsic overall merit (independent of how well or how poorly it is performed, recorded, or realized in any particular recording or realization).  One possible set of interpretations of the various rating levels may be found listed in the table Ratings.  This of course is entirely subjective and could follow various arbitrary criteria, such as historical importance or listenability, etc.  I do not suggest that the values I have entered are anything other than my personal inexpert opinions.  Use 0 if you wish to leave the work unrated (a truly blank value is not allowed but 0 displays as blank), 10 for the highest or best possible rating, and 1 for the lowest or worst possible rating.  No need to notify me if you differ in your opinion!  The Rating text box is editable: if yellow, double-click it until it turns white, enter a new rating, and press Shift-Enter to save your value.

To enter or revise a Rating for an existing extant subwork, select the desired subwork, making sure the arrowhead on the left of the SubWorks subform points to this subwork, and then press the more centrally positioned Edit button of the SubWorks subform.  Change the rating as above and press Accept.

Note that rating of a work or subwork can also be entered or revised on the Works/SubWorks Subform of the Recordings form.

Category of an Extant Work or SubWork

You can change the category of a work with the combo box labeled Category.  Be sure it is editable by double-clicking it if is yellow until it turns white, then select a new category.  Press Shift-Enter to save your value. The categories I have created and selected make sense to me but are admittedly rather arbitrary—for instance, there is no hard and fast distinction between opera and other staged musical works.   Note that whatever category you assign to a work will apply to all versions of that work (though its subworks may have differing categories). 

You can change the category of a subwork, independent of the category of its parent work.  (For example, a vocal CLVO work may have a sinfonia CLIN introduction subwork.)  To revise a category for an existing extant subwork, select the desired subwork, making sure the arrowhead on the left of the SubWorks subform points to this subwork, and then press the more centrally positioned Edit button of the SubWorks subform.  Change the category and press Accept.  Note that whatever category you assign to a subwork will apply to all versions of that subwork (though its parent work may have a different category).

If you wish to change the list of categories, open the Categories table.  Be sure new entries follow the format of the existing entries.  Be aware that any change you make to the wording (description) of a category applies to all such categorized works, subworks, and recordings in the Database.

Editing Version Year for an Extant Work or Various Fields for a SubWork

See above for a full description of creating and deleting Work and SubWork versions.

You can edit the Version Year of a Work version in the text box labeled "Year of completion of this version" on the main Extant Works form (be sure to double-click if yellow, to make it editable). Change the year (format as above), then press Shift-Enter to save your change.  This year applies only to the current work and version, not to other versions or subworks of this work.  Note that when works or subworks have been composed and/or revised over several years, a single year entered is obviously only an approximation, and should usually be entered with a minus sign (e.g., -1572) to signify approximateness.  Clarify this in the work's comment if you like.

To revise the Version Year for an existing extant subwork, select the desired subwork, making sure the arrowhead on the left of the SubWorks subform points to this subwork, and then press the more centrally positioned Edit button of the SubWorks subform.  Change the year (format as above) and press Accept.  The year applies only to the selected subwork and version, not to other subworks or versions of the same subwork or work. 

You can also use this edit form to modify for a subwork the subwork Name Translation, the subwork Opus, the subwork Version, the subwork Year,  the subwork Category, and the subwork Rating as described further elsewhere.

Editing Extant Work Version Description

For a full description of creating and deleting Work and SubWork versions, see above.

To edit a version description, you must do this in the Versions table.

Comment about an Extant Work

You can add a multi-line comment regarding a work in the text box Comment.  Such a comment will apply to a particular version of the work (if there is more than one version listed), and may optionally describe aspects of some of the subworks of this work.  Use the Up or Down arrow within a multi-line text box such as this to see the full contents that are scrolled out of view. Press Ctrl-Enter to start a new line in a multi-line entry.  See below regarding inclusion of copyrighted information.  Some of the items you may wish to include in the Comments text box include:

You may press Clean to remove undesirable characters from the Work Comment which do not display properly in text boxes.  (These characters might be accidentally imported for instance by pasting from webpages, etc., and might include em- and en-dashes, ellipsis character, tabs, daggers, etc.  The full process performed is spelled out in subroutine FormatWorkComment within the VB code.) 

In order to see a larger and more inclusive view of an extended comment for the current work and version, you may optionally press Expand.  The FWorksComment form displayed, which requires a screen resolution of at least 1280x1024, optionally allows the comment to be edited.

Textbox of Non-English characters

This text box is available to provide a ready source of commonly encountered non-English or unusual characters.  These include characters with diacritical markings and other special symbols, such as:

        à á â ã ä å À Á Â Ã Ä Å æ Æ ç Ç ð Ð è é ê ë È É Ê Ë ì í î ï Ì Í Î Ï ñ Ñ ò ó õ ô ö ø Ò Ó Õ Ö Ô Ø ß þ Þ ù ú û ü Ü Ù Ú Û Ü ÿ § ¶ ± ♭ ♯ © — –

These may be used for copying and pasting to help with creating non-English work and person names, etc. 

? (Help Button)

Press the "?" button to open up this Manual page in your Web browser (you will need to be connected to the Internet to view it).

Close the form

You may completely close (not just hide) the Extant Works form and return to the Main Menu by pressing Close.

RECORDINGS FORM

A screenshot of this form may be seen here.  This form displays recordings (or more broadly, realizations) in the Database.  It is not the same as the Recorded Works form—the latter allows sorting by Work name, but this form does not.

The Main Form Fields

These are the fields that are displayed on the main Recordings form (i.e., not on its subforms, which are separately described).  These should be provided when entering a new Recording.

Recording
The Name of the recording (for suggested naming conventions, see below)
RecID
The Recording ID unique for this recording.  This number is automatically generated for new recordings and has date information encoded in it according to the format YYYMMNNN, where 
YYY represents the year (099 = 1999, 100 =  2000, 101 = 2001, 110 = 2010, etc.)
MM represents the month (01=January, 12 = December, 00 = not specified)
NNN is an arbitrary number 000-999 which when combined with YYY and MM makes this RecordingID unique in the Database.
You can change the RecordingID if you wish on this form. Certain situations however will prevent you from doing so—you may need to change GroupBy temporarily to CategoryID, make the desired RecordingID change, then change GroupBy back to its former value.
Mfr
The Manufacturer.  You may select from the combo box or you may add and select a new manufacturer by pressing New (adjacent to the Manufacturer name).  For a new Manufacturer, you will need to provide a MfrID (6 letters, avoid diacritical marks, spaces, or other punctuation) and the name you wish to use for the new manufacturer.  Note that I have intentionally used text for the MfrID rather than a number so that this ID can have mnemonic value as an abbreviation and therefore be meaningful when included in the printed report.  Use N/A when there is no obvious manufacturer, such as for a "recording" (realization) consisting simply of a MIDI file, etc.
CatNo
The Manufacturer's Catalog Number for this recording in the designated format.  This may be left blank where appropriate.
Format
Format for this recording as commercially issued (e.g., CD, LP, VHS, DVD, FLAC, MP3, etc.).  Use MIDI for a MIDI "recording", MUS for a Finale notation file, etc.
Units
Number of recorded units, e.g., CD or disks, LPs, DVDs, Cassettes, etc. in the primary source recording.
Composer (applies to the Recording as a whole)
Specify a person if the recording as a whole is to be grouped under this name (rather than under "Mult", blank, etc.)  Ignored unless List Both?=True and GroupBy = ComposerID.  
If necessary, you may add a new name as a composer by pressing New and filling out the composer information as above.
For specifics on how this field value can affect report formatting and assist in filing recordings, see below.
Perf
Overall artistic quality of the performance for the recording as a whole.
(0 = Unrated, 1 = Poor, 4 =  Excellent, 5 = Superlative)
Rec
Technical engineering quality of the recording as a whole, usually with reference to the sound quality but could be audiovisual quality for a DVD.
(0 = Unrated, 1 = Poor, 4 =  Excellent, 5 = Superlative)
Overall Exp
Overall experience quality for this performance and recording or realization as a whole
(0 = Unrated, 1 = worst, 10 = best)
Perf/Rec YR
Four digit year of this recording's original performance and recording issue, respectively (Negative = Approximate year, 0 = Unknown).  Note that a performance of a single work always takes place at a particular point in time and thus year, but that subsequent issues of the original recording, perhaps reissued in different recording formats and media, can be made in later years.  The recording copyright year would typically represent the latest year applicable.
Category
Category for the recording as a whole (e.g.,  "Classical Vocal Nonstaged", "Movie Audio (Scores, Soundtracks & Audio Excerpts)", etc.  These are the same categories that apply to individual works and subworks (see above).  For specifics on how this field value can affect report formatting and assist in filing recordings, see below.  Note that I prefer to minimize a proliferation of categories.
Comment
A general comment for the recording as a whole.  This might include acquisition information, additional comments on performance quality or special roles, etc. It could conceivably be multi-line, though will not be displayed as such, and should usually be entered as a run-on single line.  (Use Shift-F2 to see a zoomed text box that can display more lines at a time from the contents of this comments text box).  See below regarding inclusion of copyrighted information.
GroupBy (SortByID)
This specifies how this recording will be grouped in the main printed Report.  For specifics on how this field value (which is stored as SortByID) is used in determining report formatting and assist in filing recordings, see the next item and also details below
List Both ?
This specifies whether the name of the recording as well as the names of the explicitly listed works and subworks it contains will be printed in the main printed Report.  If you always want the report to be as complete as possible (or just find this all too complex to have to worry about), check this box.

If checked, the name of the recording will always be printed as a separate line item, in addition to the names of all explicitly listed works and subworks for this recording.

If unchecked, and if the recording has GroupBy="ComposerID", the works and subworks explicitly listed will be printed as line items, but the name of the recording will not be separately printed.  

If unchecked and if the recording has GroupBy=PerformerID, PerfGroupID, or CategoryID, the name of the recording will be printed, but the works and subworks explicitly listed for this recording will not be printed as separate line items.

For further specifics on how this is used in determining report formatting, see below.
Complete ?
This specifies whether the named works and subworks on the recording are all considered complete or merely excerpted.  Note that a subwork that is listed as a subwork and has been fully recorded is considered complete, even if it is contained in a work that is not itself fully included on the recording.
DDD ?
When checked, this signifies that all the works and subworks listed were originally fully digital recordings.  If unchecked, this implies that there was an analog stage in the recording process for at least one work or subwork listed.  Digitally re-mastered but formerly analog recordings are not DDD.
Omit ?
When checked, this signifies that the recording and all the works and subworks listed under it should be omitted from the printed report, overriding all other considerations.  If unchecked, other factors described above will determine which recordings and works will appear in the report.
# (Number of Works Explicitly listed on this Recording)
This text box displays the Number of Works and Subworks Explicitly listed as line items in the Works/SubWorks subform for this Recording and is updated each time you move to a different recording. This field can be a useful guide to ensure that you have entered all the works and subworks on a recording if you know for instance the number of tracks.

Works/SubWorks Subform Fields and Buttons

These are the fields that are displayed on the Works/SubWorks subform for the Recordings form (You transfer these works and subworks to this subform from the Extant Works form):

WVID
The unique ID corresponding to a particular version of a work or subwork by a particular composer (i.e., unique for a Composer + Work/SubWork Name + Opus + Version).  Double clicking on this field will take you to this work or subwork on the Extant Works form.
WorksUI
The unique ID corresponding to a WorkID, SubworkID, and ComposerID.  The user will not usually need to refer to this item.
Track # [Track Number]
The optional track number of this particular version of a work or subwork by a particular composer on this particular recording.  This field is a text field, not a numeric field.  You may edit this value by making the text box editable (double-click if yellow to make it turn white), then entering a numeric or text value (such as "05", "12", "15e", "06-12", "CD1:03-CD3:06"), etc. and pressing Shift-Enter to save it.
 
You may change the sort order of line items for this subform to sort by Track Number by clicking on the label "Track #" (which turns red). 
Composer
The name of the composer.  Double clicking on this field will take you to this work or subwork on the Extant Works form.
You may change the sort order for this subform to sort by Composer by clicking on the label "Composer" (which turns red). 
Work/SubWork {Opus}
The combined Name of the Work (and SubWork if applicable) along with the Opus information.  Double clicking on this field will take you to this work or subwork on the Extant Works form.  You may also press Show Work to accomplish the same thing, after you have selected the work or subwork of interest in the subform.  Since this entry can be longer than the space available to display it, use keyboard keys "End" and "Home" and the arrow keys to horizontally scroll through the entire contents.
You may change the sort order for this subform back to the default, Work/SubWork-Opus order, by clicking on the label Work/SubWork + {Opus} (which turns red).  Note that subworks are displayed in this subform with 2 starting space characters, so that they sort before works when using this sort order.
Ratings: Work - Perf - Rec - Overall
For any particular work or subwork and version line-item shown in this subform, these four column fields represent subjective quality assessments applying to the indicated line-item (see above for similar assessments applying to the Recording as a whole).  From left to right, these available line-item assessments are:

  1. Work: The Intrinsic Personal Rating of the work or subwork and version (information also shown and editable on the Extant Works form).  This Rating may be 0 (unrated) or between 1 (worst) and 10 (best).
  2. Perf = Performance Quality: The artistic performance quality of this work or subwork and version on this recording or realization.  The same 0 to 5 quality rating scale as may be used for the recording as a whole is employed. 
  3. Rec = Recording Quality: the technical engineering Recording Quality of this work or subwork and version on this recording (usually for sound quality, but possibly for audiovisual quality, etc.).  The same 0 to 5 quality rating scale as may be used for the recording as a whole is employed.
  4. Overall = Overall Experience Quality: The Overall Experience rating for this work or subwork and version on this recording.  The same 0 to 10 quality rating scale as may be used for the recording as a whole is employed.
Space does not permit displaying words for these items, so they are shown simply as digits (or blank if zero).  You may edit any of these values by making the text box editable (by double-clicking if yellow), then entering a valid numeric value and pressing Shift-Enter to save it.  The only other field on this subform that can be edited directly is the Track Number.
Persons-Group
This column field displays one of the following applying to the line-item.:
      
      P: One or more persons have been entered specifically for this line-item.
      G: One or more performing groups have been entered specifically for this line-item.
      GP: One or more performing groups and one or more persons have been entered specifically for this line-item.
      <blank>: No person or group has been entered specifically for this line-item

Persons
To view the persons who have been entered specifically for this work or subwork (not for the recording as a whole), select the work of interest (so that the arrowhead on the left side of the Works/SubWorks subform points at the work or subwork of interest), then press Person at the top of the subform.  The Persons form (Persons Performing For The Currently Selected Work/SubWork and Recording) opened in this way may also be used to add another person for this work/subwork (just press Add Person for this Work/SubWork).  You will need to select the roles that the person plays on the recording and will have the option to add a new person if necessary.  If you wish to indicate in the Database that this person is noted for a particular role you have selected, press To Ever to store that role (overriding any previous such designation), so that this role will be displayed when this same form is used again with the Ever checkbox checked.  This will speed up the entry of roles for that person in the future, inasmuch as you will be able to press To Here to set the role for the current work to the usual (Ever) role for that person.  Note that merely checking conductor = Here does not automatically make his/her Ever conductor role checkbox checked—you must check Ever manually if you wish him/her to be known as a conductor for future reference (double click to make the Ever checkbox editable).  Sometimes you may wish to edit specific fields of a person's data such as the first, middle, or last name.  However, this form does not allow you to do so. This form however does allow you to specify a person's roles in a way that fills in the numeric RoleID field automatically.

To delete a person listed for a particular work or subwork, select the person on the Persons Performing For The Currently Selected Work/SubWork and Recording form (so that the arrowhead on the left side of the form points at the person of interest), then press the keyboard key Del or select the menu command Edit | Delete and confirm the deletion.

Groups:
To view the groups which have been entered for this work or subwork specifically, select the work of interest (so that the arrowhead on the left side of the Works/SubWorks subform points at the work or subwork of interest), then press Group at the top of the subform.  The Groups form (Groups Performing For The Currently Selected Work/SubWork and Recording) opened in this way may also be used to add another group for this work/subwork (just press Add Group for this Work/SubWork).  

To delete a group listed for a particular work or subwork, select the group on the Groups Performing For The Currently Selected Work/SubWork and Recording form (so that the arrowhead on the left side of the form points at the group of interest), then press the keyboard key "Del" or select the menu command Edit | Delete and confirm the deletion.
Version
This is the text description of the version for this work or subwork which has been recorded (e.g., "Usual/Unspecified", "Orchestral Suite", etc.)
Year
This is the Year of composition for this version of this work/subwork, if provided.  All years in this database are assumed to be AD (CE) and never BC (BCE).

To Delete a work or subwork from the Works/SubWorks Subform for the Recordings form, select the work of interest (so that the arrowhead on the left side of the Works/SubWorks subform points at the work or subwork of interest), then press Del at the top of the subform.  You cannot use the Del key on your keyboard for this deletion.  You cannot delete a line item until you have deleted any AV file associated with it (see the following).

AV Files Associated With Particular Works On Recordings

If you are interested in linking existing Audio-VIsual files (such as MP3, FLAC, WAV, MIDI, M3U playlist files, MUS notation files, etc.) for works listed on one or more recordings to the McGoodwin Music Database, you must provide these AV files from your own resources.  Sorry, they do not come with the McGoodwin Music Database and I cannot provide them.

To Create a suggested AV filename and path (i.e., a file specification for an AV file you already have) for the currently highlighted work on this recording, press FN at the top of the subform.  This opens the Suggested AV File Specifications form.  Start with the suggested file specification, and edit it (usually by shortening it), then copy, and paste the edited file specification as needed.  This process does not create the AV file—it only creates a standardized meaningfully named suggested file specification to use as a stating point for naming and moving the existing file (do this in Windows Explorer, etc.)  If there is already an AV file specification entry for this work, the current entry will be displayed as well as a new suggested standardized file specification. To have a particular AV file playable on the Recordings form, you must first explicitly add the work corresponding to this file to the Recordings form.  Then use the AV Files and Playlists form (by pressing the A button) to associate the file specification with the work.  (See below for associating an AV binary file or playlist with the recording as a whole, so that the entire recording can be played with a single button click.)

Storing and revising AV filenames and paths

When you enter the location of an AV file in this database, a value which is stored in the AVFiles table, it is possible to enter the full file path (a "fully qualified file specification"), such as "C:\MyMusic\Beatles\ HeyJude.MP3" or "\\MusicServer\C$\MoreMusic\ Beatles\HeyJude.MP3".  However, for greater simplicity and for facilitating making the needed database revisions in case you change where you store your AV Files, you may wish to store only partial file paths rather than always giving fully qualified file specifications for your AV Files.  This means that you will need to tell the Database what starting directory you want it to look in for AV files—the AV Files Root Directory.  You will need to add a single value to the table "MetaData" for which the "DataType" is "AVFilesRootDirWBSUNC" and for which the "Data" value is the partial or full path to be appended on the left of the filename or partial file path that you actually store.  The AV Files Root Directory should end in a backslash.  For example, if you store only the AV file partial path "Beatles\HeyJude.MP3" (which is not a fully qualified file specification) but have your AV Files Root Directory = "C:\MyMusic\"  stored as the value of "AVFilesRootDirWBSUNC", the Database will attempt to launch the file "C:\MyMusic\ Beatles\HeyJude.MP3" in your default MP3 player when you request playing this file. Then when you move your music collection from "C:\MyMusic\" to "\\MusicServer\C$\MoreMusic\", you need only change the value recorded in the MetaData table.  To avoid errors, the Database will not operate until you provide a valid directory value for the AV Files Root Directory

AV Files Stored On Disk But Not Listed In The AVFiles Table (FLPO AV Files)

For this section, I am assuming your AV Files are stored on "disk"—a hard drive or other storage location known to your computer's operating system ("OS")—and found in a folder located under the AV Files Root Directory.  Files stored in this manner will be termed "OS AV files".  In most cases, every OS AV file stored in folders positioned under your AV Files Root Directory should be listed in the AVFiles table (termed here "DB AV Files").  This means that each such OS AV file should either be associated with a recording as a whole on the main Recordings form, or with an work or subwork listed on the Works subform on the Recordings form for a particular recording.  If you store a file as an OS AV File that is not listed as a DB AV file, obviously there will be no way to play it from within the Database, as it will have no knowledge of it.  The validation buttons described here allow checking for inconsistent AV Files entries, specifically seeking OS AV files that are not listed as DB AV Files and vice versa.

However, there may be times when one has a large number of AV files corresponding to a work on a recording or a recording as a whole, and entering an extant work in the DB for each of the AV files would be too tedious.  This might for instance occur with a recording of a Russian opera having 30 tracks per disk yielding many files on extraction that would be hard to name and enter in the Database.  For such cases, I have provided the Process FLPO Files button on the Suggested AV File Specifications form.

To use this capability, first place a set of audiovisually related AV binary files in the temporary directory you have previously specified.  (This directory must be specified when you start the Database if you have not already done so.  To change the value, modify the value in the "Data" column stored in the MetaData table corresponding to DataType = "AVFilesTempDirWBS".)  Be sure this directory will have no other files in it—it should not be the system Temp directory, but rather one you create and reserve exclusively for this purpose.  The related AV binary files must have file names which begin with a sequential sequence of digits, typically 1 or 2 digits giving the track number (such as 03, 04, 05, ...), or 3 digits consisting of track number preceded by a disk number (such as 101, 102, 103, ... 201, 202, 203, ...)  You can often control this file naming convention in the program you are using to "rip" or extract AV Files from CDs, but otherwise you will need to manually add the digits to establish the proper order (or use a file renaming utility program).  These digits do not have to begin at "001" for the first file, but whatever initial numeric characters are present will determine the ultimate alphabetical sort order for these files and will determine the order in which the renamed files are listed in the playlist created.  The first 3 characters on the left of the original file names are evaluated to determine the final numeric order, though not all 3 are required to be Arabic numerals (only the first must be numeric).  Assuming your selected temp directory is X:\Temp\, the files should be placed in X:\Temp\ and might have names like these:

01_BWV063-1_Chorus_Christen,_ätzet_diesen_Tag_in_Metall_und_Marmorsteine_D4700.flac
02_BWV063-2_Recitative_O_selger_Tag!_o_ungemeines_Heute_D4700.flac
03_BWV063-3_Duet_Gott,_du_hast_es_wohl_gefüget_D4700.flac

You invoke the FLPO Files process from the Suggested AV File Specifications form because you need to first create a suitable Fully Qualified File Specification (FQFS, not just a partial path here) for the final playlist that will also serve as a destination files pattern.  For example, you might end up providing a FQFS pattern file such as the following, adjusted for your own file structure:

C:\MyFiles\AV\CP\B\BA\BachJS\BachJS_Cantata_BWV63_10012015_2237.M3U

Since the goal is to rename a series of AV binary files and create a playlist, the extension of this pattern file specification should be the playlist extension, ".M3U".  Copy this fully qualified file specification to the clipboard when you are satisfied with it..

When you then press the Process FLPO Files button, all files in the temp directory will be renamed according to this pattern file (but with preservation of their original extension) and moved to the appropriate folder location.  In this example, the files will be renamed and moved to the following:

C:\MyFiles\AV\CP\B\BA\BachJS\FLPO\BachJS_Cantata_BWV63_10012015_2237_001.flac
C:\MyFiles\AV\CP\B\BA\BachJS\FLPO\BachJS_Cantata_BWV63_10012015_2237_002.flac
C:\MyFiles\AV\CP\B\BA\BachJS\FLPO\BachJS_Cantata_BWV63_10012015_2237_003.flac

In addition, a playlist (.M3U) text file will be generated and placed in the same temporary directory where these files were placed, and opened in Notepad.  It has the filename you specified, and contains the correct playlist information, but is not yet in the intended final directory.  Now, as you view the new playlist contents within Notepad, use File > Save As to save this playlist file using the fully qualified file specification you have saved to the clipboard.  You should then close the Suggested AV File Specifications form, and open the AV Files form to associate this playlist AV File specification with the recording as a whole or with the work on the recording as appropriate.  In this example, the playlist file will be specified by:

C:\MyFiles\AV\CP\B\BA\BachJS\BachJS_Cantata_BWV63_10012015_2237.M3U

and will serve as the playlist for this cantata on this recording. 

In summary, you will have renamed and moved these AV binary files to a specific location in your OS based on the pattern file.  The files are not explicitly listed as DB AV files (i.e., they are not listed in the AVFiles table) but rather are listed only in a playlist file.  ("FLPO" signifies "Files Listed [in] Playlist(s) Only").  The playlist file itself can be associated with a recording as a whole or with a work on a recording.  Because this playlist will appear in the DB in the AVFiles table, it may be played from the DB.  These FLPO AV binary files will not be flagged as errors when you run the validation procedure Confirm All OS AV Files are Listed in DB, a consistency checking routine which will ignore files found under ...\FLPO\ subfolders.

AV Files and Playlists Form

To Add, Revise, or Delete an AV filename (with optional path) for the currently selected work in the stored list of playable AV Files or playlists, press A at top of the subform.  The file should already exist in the revised location and with the revised name.  Although most works on this subform will link to at most a single AV file, in some cases you may have works that are split among several files (e.g., each act of an opera or multiple movements of a symphony or concerto).  In such cases, you may wish to create a playlist to allow playing the entire work without interruption. For individual works, you will need to create the playlist manually, as the process has not been automated, and then provide the file specification for this linked AV file. It is easiest to create and open the playlist for the entire recording as described below, then edit that playlist to include only the files for the work in question, then save this playlist to a suitable file specification.

If the AV File you have entered corresponds to an .M3U playlist, you may press Open M3U in MP3Tag to display and optionally edit the metadata tags for the files in the playlist file in the external program MP3Tag.  To use this capability, you will need to download and install this independent program, and specify where it is installed when prompted.  Enter the fully qualified path to the program as installed on your system, such as "Y:\MM\MP3Tag\Mp3tag.exe".

Subform Buttons for Playing AV Files

The following buttons positioned at the top of the subform (added beginning in DB version 8.5) work only with the Winamp player, except as noted.  A recent version of Winamp is recommended, but as of 2014, I have worked with Winamp version 5.6.3 but not higher.  If you have not previously informed the Database where you have installed Winamp, you will be prompted to provide this file path.  Enter the fully qualified file specification to Winamp as installed on your system, such as "Y:\Misc32\MM\WinAmp\winamp.exe".  (To change the value if you relocate Winamp, modify the value in the "Data" column stored in the MetaData table corresponding to DataType = "WinampPathFQFS".) 

Note that in describing how these buttons function, there may be up to three different AV files that are "selected" in some sense for playing, a potential source of real confusion:

(1) Subform selection: If the current recording has works/subworks listed on the the Works/Subworks form, one of these works/subworks may be currently selected (highlighted by means of display of an arrowhead at the left of the subform).  In the table that follows, let's call this work/subwork track (and its associated AV file) the subform selection.
(2) Currently playing Winamp track: A track (corresponding to a binary AV file) may be currently playing (or possibly paused or even stopped) in Winamp.  Let's call this the Currently playing Winamp track.  Although it will probably be listed in the current Winamp playlist and its title data displayed in the scrolling title display (though not in certain cases), it may not not be the currently highlighted playlist track in Winamp. 
(3) Currently selected Winamp playlist track: A track (corresponding to a binary AV file) may be currently selected (highlighted) in the Winamp playlist.  Let's call this the currently selected Winamp playlist track. It may differ from the Currently playing Winamp track. This selection is relevant to the user directly interacting with playlist play in the Winamp user interface, but I do not make use of it in the buttons named below.

 

Button
Button Name
Description and Comments
Play file button Play subform selection Play the subform selection from the beginning.  The associated AV file is played or opened using the operating system's default player or viewer program for the type of AV file selected.  (Winamp is recommended but is not required as the default player.)  This button will be disabled if there is no AV file entry in the database for this recording and the selected work/subwork.
Stop play button Stop play Stop Winamp play of Currently playing Winamp track.  (No effect if Winamp is already stopped or not playing a file.)
Pause/Unpause play Pause/Unpause play Toggle between play and pause of Currently playing Winamp track.  (No effect if Winamp is stopped or not playing a file.)
+10 Forward 10 Fast forward (jump forward) 10 seconds in Currently playing Winamp track.  If the track was paused, it remains paused but makes the jump.  (No effect if Winamp is stopped or not playing a file.)
-10 Rewind 10 Rewind (jump backward) 10 seconds in Currently playing Winamp track.  If the track was paused, it remains paused but makes the jump.  (No effect if Winamp is stopped or not playing a file.)
M:S Play at MMM:SS Play, beginning at a specified point, within the Currently playing Winamp track and always using Winamp.  Press the button M:S and enter the time to jump to, either as overall seconds or in the form MMM:SS.  If you enter 0, you will play this file from the beginning using Winamp.  Even if play was previously paused or stopped, this button will start play.  (This button uses Winamp to reposition, then play in the Currently playing Winamp track—this is in contrast to the Play subform selection button, which plays the subform selection in the default player program from the beginning).  (No effect if Winamp has no Currently playing Winamp track.)
E-20 Play last 20 seconds of track Play starting at the last 20 seconds of the Currently playing Winamp track.  If the track was paused or stopped, it makes the jump and starts or resumes play.  (No effect if Winamp is not playing a file.)
Play Next Track button Play Next Track Play the next track in Winamp's playlist, the one after the Currently playing Winamp track.  (No effect if not playing a multi-track playlist in Winamp).
Play Previous Track button Play Previous Track Play the previous track in Winamp's playlist, the one before the Currently playing Winamp track.  (No effect if not playing a multi-track playlist in Winamp).

 

Incidentally , the unlabeled text box visible to the left of the various play-related buttons displays the Track Number and Track Seconds status of Winamp play.  "T 2/5" signifies that track 2 of 5 (in the current Winamp playlist, where applicable) is playing.  "S 206/3776" signifies that the current track is 3776 seconds long, and that current play is positioned at 206 elapsed seconds.  This textbox is normally updated only when you click on it, or press one of the play-related buttons.  However, if you double-click this text box, you will toggle the displayed characters from black to red.  While displaying red, the display is updated every 2 seconds.  This frequent polling of Winamp consumes CPU time and can be visually distracting, thus the option is provided to keep the display static versus dynamically updating.

Performing Groups Subform Fields and Buttons

These are the fields that are displayed on the Performing Groups subform of the Recordings form. You can add a new group for the recording as a whole by pressing Add Group on the main form.  

Performing Group
This is the name of each performing group designated as performing for the recording as a whole.   You may delete a performing group from the recording as a whole by selecting the group in the Performing Groups subform, then pressing Del at the top of the Performing Groups subform.
Type
This displays the type of group: Musical, Dancing, Acting, etc.

Persons (Performers) Subform Fields and Buttons

These are the fields that are displayed on the Persons subform of the Recordings form (You add these persons for the recording as a whole by pressing Add Person on the main form):

PersonID
This is the 6 letter ID representing a person who has performed a role for the recording as a whole.  
Person (Name)
Last Name, First Name of person.
You may delete a person from the recording as a whole by selecting the person in the Persons subform, then pressing Del at the top of the Persons subform.
YOB
Year of birth of the person.  All years in this database are assumed to be AD (CE).
Roles (this field title does not actually display)
This lists a composite textual description of the roles the person plays for the recording as a whole, e.g., "Conductor", "Princ. Artist - Vocal-Misc.", "Organ", "Treble (Male)", Director (if the recording is a film or multimedia presentation), etc.

Moving to Different Recordings

You may do any of the following:

Sorting or Displaying Subsets of Recordings

The standard Access methods of changing sort order or displaying subsets of recordings may be used.  For instance, you may sort by Recording Name by clicking in "Recording" and pressing AZ on the Access toolbar.  Or to display only recordings which have the name "Mahler" in them, do a search in the Recording field for "Mahler", then while these letters are highlighted, choose Records | Filter | Filter By Selection.  To redisplay all records, use Records | Remove Filter/Sort.

However, you may also press the Sort or Subset button.  This will bring up a small separate form with a combo box which provides a way of selecting several different subsets or sort orders for the Recordings form.  For instance, using this Sort/Subset form, you can choose to display only recordings which have one or more associated AV File, or recordings displayed sorted in order of the RecordingID, etc.

Adding a Recording

To add a recording, press New Recording.  You will need to provide some of the field values as discussed above.  This form provides several New buttons which are available if needed to add a new Manufacturer, Composer, Principal Artist, or Performing Group if needed.  Press Accept to save the new recording information.

If you wish to create a new recording that has many aspects similar to or identical to the currently displayed recording you are viewing, press Clone to open the Add a New Recording form with an identical copy of the current recording, which you may then modify.  

There is no hard limit to how many recordings you may add.

Recordings Naming Conventions

Follow these suggested conventions in naming recordings if you wish to be consistent with the format I have used (admittedly somewhat inconsistently):

Displaying Other Forms

You may move to the Extant Works form by pressing Extant Works or to the Recorded Works form by pressing Recorded Works.  Note that either action does not actually close the Recordings form, it merely hides it.

Delete Recording

You might want to think twice before deleting any of the recordings in this database that you do not have (see below about preventing these from appearing in the printed report).  However, if you wish, you may delete the current recording by pressing Delete Recording.

Audio-Visual Files Associated with Whole Recordings

If you are interested in linking pre-existing Audio-Visual files (such as MP3, FLAC, WAV, M3U playlist files, MIDI, notation files, etc.) to an entire recording in the McGoodwin Music Database, you must provide these AV files from your own resources.  Sorry, they do not come with the McGoodwin Music Database.  (See above for the process by which an AV File is linked with a particular work on a recording.)

Forming an appropriate AV File Specification: To create a suggested AV filename and path for an AV file that applies to the current recording as a whole, press Make AV Filename at the bottom left of the main form.  This opens the Suggested AV File Specifications form, which may be used as a starting point to edit (usually to shorten), copy, and paste the file specification as needed.  (See also "Storing and revising AV filenames and paths" above.)  If there is already an AV file specification entry for the recording, the current entry will be displayed as well as a new suggested standardized file specification. 

AV Files and Playlists Form: To Add, Revise, or Delete an AV filename (with optional path) for the current recording as a whole in the list of playable AV Files or playlists, press AV Files at the bottom left of the main form.  The file should already exist in the revised location and with the revised name.  The AV Files and Playlists form that comes up provides a Create or Revise Playlist File button, which may be used to generate a permanent playlist file of AV Files currently associated with the current recording.  These will usually be generated using the sort order established by Track numbers of works listed for the recording, and if you have already entered this information, including the corresponding file specifications and track numbers, the generation of a playlist can be done very easily and automatically. 

A much more tedious but potentially more flexible process may be used instead.  (As it has turned out, I rarely use this process, and do not recommend it.)  If you have entered playlist information for the current whole recording in the Playlists table, these values will take precedence.  This kind of playlist data for recordings must currently be entered by hand in the Playlists table, as the process has not been automated.  To enter this data in the Playlists table, create a unique PlaylistID for the recording of interest in the Playlists table.  Then enter records each having this same PlaylistID and the same RecordingID for the recording of interest but with varying WVID for the individual files of the recording's playlist, starting with an initial entry with WVID=0 and SeqNum=0 to indicate that this Playlist line item corresponds to a whole recording.  Give the remaining items for this playlist the same PlaylistID and the same RecordingID but with the varying values of WVID and sequentially increasing SeqNum values, such as SeqNum=1, SeqNum=2, SeqNum=3, etc..  This SeqNum order will determine the actual order in which the files will play in the playlist. 

Because using the Playlists table method is much more cumbersome, you should use this approach only if you are not satisfied with the order in which works will play based on the track numbers you have entered.  To take advantage of automated generation of playlists, you can always "cheat" by rearranging the track numbers to yield the play order you desire, then recreate the playlist in automated fashion.  Or you can simply edit the automated playlist file generated if you wish to make minor tweaks to the play order.  (Your edits will be overwritten if you later regernerate the playlist in the automated manner.)

You may view and optionally edit the contents of your current permanent playlist file by pressing View/Edit Current Playlist Contents on the AV Files and Playlists form—the playlist file will open in Notepad.. 

The AV Files and Playlists form also provides a Play Temp Playlist button, which may be used to test the playlist generation process by creating and playing a temporary playlist file for the current recording.  I find this button of little use.

If the AV File you have entered corresponds to an .M3U playlist, you may press Open M3U in MP3Tag on the AV Files and Playlists form to display and edit the metadata tags for the AV binary files listed in the playlist file in the external program MP3Tag.  (To use this capability, you will need to download and install this independent program, and specify where it is installed when prompted.  Enter the fully qualified path to the program as installed on your system, such as "Y:\MM\MP3Tag\Mp3tag.exe".) 

Although these are probably of interest mainly to the developer, you may also press any of these buttons on the AV Files and Playlists form:

1. Confirm All AVFiles Table Files Are In OS
2. Confirm All OS AV Files are Listed in DB
3. Validate Contents of All DB & OS Playlists
4. Compare Count of AV Files In DB vs. OS

These allow you to to perform technical consistency quality control checks on all of your AV files at one time.  By "OS", I mean the files that are found by the operating system in the drive and directories expected for AV files.  By "DB" or "Listed" I mean the files listed in the AVFiles table of the DB.  Obviously, files listed in the AVFiles table should actually exist on your hard drive, and files in the OS should be found in the DB (or at least be named in a playlist that is found in the DB). Validate Contents of All DB & OS Playlists causes each playlist found in the OS and/or listed in the AVFiles table to be read, and each file listed within to be checked for existence.  Currently, only M3U playlist files can be internally validated.

When a recording contains only a single work (though possibly with multiple subworks as listed in the Works subform), in order to prevent false positive errors reported with Confirm All AVFiles Table Files Are In OS, the following file naming conventions are recommended though not mandatory (these conventions are automatically observed if you allow the Database to suggest appropriate AV file filenames):
(1) the recording as a whole should be associated with an AV filename, typically a playlist, for which the final part of the AV filename preceding the extension should end in "RRRRRRR_0" (where RRRRRRR is replaced with the RecordingID, and 0 signifies a playlist for the recording as a whole). 
(2) If the single work on the recording is explicitly listed in the Works subform (optional but desirable even for single work recordings), the AV file, if any, assigned for this work should have a different name from the AV file for the recording as a whole.  The consistency checking looks for a filename ending in "RRRRRRR_WWWW" (where RRRRRRR is replaced with the RecordingID and WWWW is replaced with the WVID for the listed work.   If this is a playlist, it may simply be a copy of the playlist file created for the recording as a whole but renamed.

To Play or Open the AV file for the current recording as a whole (if a corresponding AV file is available), press the right-pointing arrowhead button Play file button at the bottom left of the main form.  This button will be disabled if there is no such entry in the Database.

To Display and optionally Edit track information or other technical information about the recording as a whole, press the Track Info button. This brings up the Recording Technical and Track Information form.  (This form includes a Clean button which can be used to remove undesirable characters such as Tab characters from the Track Info entered for all recordings.)

See also information above related to playing selected works on the recording.

? (Help Button)

Press this button "?" to open up this Manual in your Web browser (you need to be connected to the Internet to view it).

Closing the Form

You may completely close (not just hide) the Recordings form and return to the Main Menu by pressing Close.

RECORDED WORKS FORM

A screenshot of this form may be seen here.  This form is not the same as the Recordings form—the latter does not allow sorting by Work Name but this form does.  (In practice, I rarely use this form, and instead prefer the Find Extant Works and Subworks form.)

Using the Recorded Work Form

This form consolidates in one location most of the information about works that are on recordings included in the Database, to facilitate searching by various criteria.  It is read-only and does not allow any revisions.  It is sortable on work-related fields, unlike the Recordings form.  You can change the sort order of recorded works displayed by pressing Composer, Work, or Recording.  You can also click in a field of interest and press the Access toolbar button labeled "AZ" or "ZA" to sort on that field.  For example, a reverse sort (ZA) on Units field will show you the recordings which have the most CDs or other media units in your collection.

To initiate a search, click in the field of interest and then use the Access Ctrl-F menu item.  

The Combined Names + Opus field combines Work Name + SubWork Name + Work Opus + SubWork Opus and is a good place to search for recorded work names.  You can also search for certain name origin keywords such as "Psalm" (which finds "Super flumina Babilonis" by Palestrina), or nicknames such as "Four Seasons" (which finds "Quattro stagioni, Le" and "Moonlight" (which finds Piano Sonata No. 14 "quasi una fantasia" by Beethoven).  

Similarly, you can search in the Combined Work/Version Comments field to find a keyword that may be included in the comments applying to various versions of a work (e.g., "Much Ado" will find "Béatrice et Bénédict" by Berlioz).

If you find a work etc. which you wish to see on the Recordings form (actually the first recording of this work found), press Show in Recordings.  If you find a work etc. which you wish to see on the Extant Work form, press Show in Extant Works form.  

You may simply return to the Extant Works form by pressing Extant Works, or to the Recordings form by pressing Recordings.

Press the "?" button  to open up this Manual page in your Web browser (you need to be connected to the Internet to view it).

You may completely close (not just hide) this form and return to the Main Menu form by pressing Close.

REPORT OF RECORDED WORKS

This report can be useful in providing a sorted listing of recordings which you have.  There are several fields which interact to determine the section, subsection, and order in which recordings and recorded works are listed.  By suitable choice of the values in these fields, you can determine where you wish a recording or recorded work to be listed in the report, and you can use the same listing to determine where or in what order to file your recordings (albums, CDs, etc.).

This report can be viewed first, and optionally sent to your printer.  You may find you need to adjust its margins slightly in design view if your printer requires wide margins.

Because of the large size of the database, I rarely create this report anymore.

Limiting How Many Recordings to Include

Unless you limit the list of the number of recordings to print (see next paragraph), this report will list all the recordings and their explicitly named works and subworks which are currently included in the Database (except as further modified by the List Both? checkboxes on the Recordings form and the "Omit ?" checkbox).

The query and other programming used to create this report can take a very long time to run, especially on a slower computer with limited memory.  In order to provide an opportunity to display a shorter listing of recordings (for example, your most recent recordings acquired), you are also asked to 'Enter Parameter value' ("pSmallestValue").  This will represent the lower limit for RecordingID values that will be included in the report.  To include all recordings in the report that are in your copy of the Database, just enter 0.  If you wish to include only recordings entered in year 2001 and beyond, you may use a value of pSmallestValue = 10100000.  The value of pSmallestValue is expressed in the format YYYMMNNN, where: 

YYY represents the earliest year you wish to include (000=all years, 099=1999, 100= 2000, 101=2001, 110=2010, etc.)
MM represents the earliest month you wish to include (00=all months, 01=January, 12=December, etc.)
NNN is usually 000 but can be up to 999.

Section and Subsection Groupings

This report intentionally intermixes line items for specific works on recordings with line items for the recordings as a whole (the latter always begin with an asterisk).

Line items for recordings as a whole are placed into the major sections of the report.  The section for a particular recording as a whole is determined by the GroupBy choice to which the recording was assigned on the Recordings form.  (This value is internally stored as SortByID.)  The sections and their contents are as follows:

Listed by Composer
This section contains the following intermixed line items:
(1) Recordings with GroupBy="ComposerID".  Such recordings are typically of works by a single composer or in some cases by several (multiple) composers.  These are recordings in which the focus is given to the composer rather than the performing group, performers, or category (I personally prefer to emphasize composers rather than performers etc. where feasible).   Recordings appear grouped under subsections representing the name of the composer.  For example,  "Bach-Goldberg Variations" is found under subsection "Bach, Johann Sebastian (b. 1685)"
(2) All works and subworks that are listed individually in the Works/SubWorks Subform of the Recordings form appear as line items in this Listed by Composer section, again under subsections representing the name of the composer. If a suitable composer name has not been provided, the work will be assigned to the composer "Unspecified Composers".

Listed by Performing Group: This section contains recordings with GroupBy="PerfGroupID".  These are recordings in which the focus is given to the group performing the works rather than to the composer of the works, the individual performers, or the category.  Recordings appear grouped under subsections representing the name of the performing group.  For example, recording "4 Way Street" is found under subsection "Crosby, Stills, Nash, Young" and recording "Best of Peter, Paul, and Mary, The" is found under subsection "Peter, Paul, And Mary".

Listed by Performer: This section contains recordings with GroupBy="PerformerID".  These are recordings in which the focus is given to a single principal soloist performing the works rather than to the composer of the works, the performing group, or the category.  Recordings appear grouped under subsections representing the name of the performer or principal artist.  For example, "Emma Kirkby Collection, The" is found under subsection "Kirkby, Emma" and "Strauss-Four Last Songs/Wagner-Wesendonck Lieder... [Eaglen]" is found under subsection "Eaglen, Jane".

Listed by Category: This section contains recordings with GroupBy="CategoryID".  These are recordings in which the focus is given to the type or category of music contained rather than to the composer of the works, the performing group or the individual performers.  This can serve as a sort of catchall choice in which to group recordings which are hard to classify.  Recordings appear grouped under subsections representing categories, such as "Classical Instrumental (Nonvocal)".  For example, recording "Chant [Benedictine Monks Santo Domingo]" is found under subsection "Classical Vocal Nonstaged", and "Christmas in Venice [Monteverdi Choir]" is found in subsection "Christmas Collections & Carols".

Header Information

The report lists the date it is created in the top header, as well as the Total Number of CDs + DVDs included in recordings in your copy of  the Database (and that are not marked Omit = True).  The page number of each page of the report is also given in the header information (to the left of "Categ/Sort").

Under the label RecordingID, you can see "from" followed by a number.  The number indicates the "pSmallestValue" value you specified before running this report (the smallest RecordingID that will be included), and therefore indicates to what extent you have limited the records in the current report.

Report Fields Displayed

Work/SubWork {Opus} or *Recording:
For a line item representing a work or subwork, this field combines the SubWork Name (if any), plus its {Opus}entry enclosed within curly braces, as well as the Work Name plus its {Opus} entry.  If a SubWork is being listed, the designation "<fr>" separates the SubWork information from the Work of which it is a part (e.g., the entry "Lux aeterna <fr> Requiem" designates the subwork "Lux aeterna" from Howells' Requiem).  

For long resulting text (exceeding about 86 characters), the various components are truncated to attempt an optimal fit of the most meaningful excerpts into the available space, but the line is never wrapped.  This truncation process can cause portions of the entry, such as the Work or SubWork name, to be cut off abruptly even mid-word.  Therefore, you should not rely too heavily on the accuracy of the resulting text in the printed report when the entry obviously appears long.  The stored information is of course not truncated.

For as line item representing the name of the Recording as a whole (as opposed to the name of one of the recorded works on the recording), this entry will begin with an asterisk (*).

Categ/Sort
This rather cryptic field lists the abbreviation for the Category to which this recording or work has been assigned (e.g., "CLIN", "CLOP"), the SortByID (e.g., 1 signifies GroupBy=ComposerID, 7 signifies GroupBy=CategoryID), and Y or N depending on whether you have checked List Both? on the Recordings form.  For any given line item that represents a work or subwork, if Y appears here, you may assume that the name of the recording as a whole also appears listed elsewhere (its section location will depend on the values of the other items encoded in this same field).  For example, a value of "CLVO-3Y" when listed for a Dvorak work appearing as a line item under the Listed by Composer section indicates that the recording as a whole for this work is listed as a line item elsewhere, specifically in the Listed by Performer section (designated by "3").

Group
This is the 6 letter abbreviation for the first performing group found for this line item, if any.  If the line item applies to the recording as a whole, the group is the one listed for the recording as a whole.  However, if the line item applies to a specific work, the group is the first one found which applies specifically to that work, or if none was specified for this work, then it is the one listed for the recording as a whole, if any.  Only one group will display in this report, even if other groups have been assigned to this work.

Cond/Artist
These two fields list the 6 letter abbreviations for up to 2 of the performers.  If the line item applies to the recording as a whole, the performers are those listed for the recording as a whole.  However, if the line item applies to a specific work, the performers are the first ones found which apply specifically to that work, or if less than 2 were specified for this work, then the performers listed are those for the recording as a whole (or some mixture thereof).  The first column always designates the conductor if specified.  Obviously, it is not possible to list all performers you may have included for a work or recording on this report, and the choice of which is listed in the report cannot generally be predetermined.  However, by designating a performer as the Principal Artist of the recording as a whole (on the Recordings form), that performer is guaranteed to appear as an artist in the report line item for the recording as a whole.  If you wish to list all the performers for a work, you will need to create a custom report that includes this.

Mfr and MfrCatNo
These are the abbreviation for the Manufacturer and the Manufacturer Catalog Number for the recording, respectively.

W-P-R
These are the abbreviated ratings for the work and/or recording:

w:    the Intrinsic Personal Rating for the Work (if applicable, 0 = Unrated, 1 = Lowest, 10 = Highest).  Does not appear for the recording as a whole.
p/P:   the Artistic Quality of the Performance (0-5); p indicates the work itself (if explicitly provided), otherwise P indicates the recording as a whole 
r/R:   the Engineering Quality of the Recording (0-5); r indicates the work itself (if explicitly provided), otherwise R indicates the recording as a whole 

#:
The number of units (CDs, DVDs, tapes, etc) for this recording.

P/R
These are the years of the Performance and Recording, respectively (99 = 1999, 00 = 2000, 01 = 2001, etc.)

Compl:
Y = The named works on the recording are all considered complete rather than excerpted; N = One or more named work is excerpted. There is no breakdown by individual works, this field applies to the recording as a whole and all the works listed for it.

Dig:
Y = All the named works listed for the recording were originally fully digital recordings; N = One or more named works had an analog stage in the recording process.  There is no breakdown by individual works, this field applies to the recording as a whole and all the works listed for it.

Version & Comments:
For a named work or subwork, this field begins with the name of the version of the work or subwork (if it is other than the "Usual/Unspecified" version) followed by the approximate year of composition if provided.  It continues with the comments listed for the recording as a whole.  This entry can wrap to a 2nd line, and the combined field is not intentionally truncated, but text which would otherwise wrap to a 3rd line or beyond will be clipped off from view in this report.

RecordingID:
Each line item includes the RecordingID for the applicable recording.  The RecordingID can be helpful when comparing line items on a printed report: if the RecordingIDs are the same, the work(s) and the recording named all belong to the same recording.

SOURCES

There are many sources of information from which this database derives.  I have tried where possible to use recognized and reasonably scholarly sources.  I am a musical amateur, however, and I realize that the musical knowledge contained is very much a work-in-progress which will require further refinement and expansion.  In addition to the many individual booklets accompanying the LP albums and CDs which I have used, these sources include

PROGRAM AND STRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS BY THE USER

You may find a review of VB modules and other objects in this database helpful if you are interested in learning more about Access database programming in general.

MCMAVP.ACCDB

You should not modify the names, structure, or contents of any of the Tables in MCMAVP.ACCDB.  You may however add tables of your own to MCMAVP.ACCDB.

You can modify any of the existing Queries, Macros, Forms, Reports, or VBA Modules in MCMAVP.ACCDB if you insist, though I advise against such modifications.  If you find an obvious programming error in these, please let me know the specifics so that I may fix and republish a revised version of MCMAVP.ACCDB.  

When a new version of MCMAVP.ACCDB is installed, it should replace your older version of this file and any changes you have made in your old copy will be lost.  However, replacing MCMAVP.ACCDB will not affect any musical data you have entered.  Please do not ask me to consult on the function of your copy of the Database if you have made any modifications to MCMAVP.ACCDB of any type.

MCMAVD.ACCDB

You can create new Tables, Queries, Macros, Forms, Reports, or VBA Modules in MCMAVD.ACCDB if you wish.  If you wish to have a new table you have added appear as linked (attached) in the Database Window of MCMAVP.ACCDB, you must add line items to the normally hidden table "MetaData" in MCMAVP.ACCDB in a similar format to the records already present for other linked tables.

You should not modify the structure of any of the existing Tables in MCMAVD.ACCDB, though you may, of course, change the data contained within the data fields of MCMAVD.ACCDB. It is easy to corrupt a data table if it is opened in "Design View" and this should be avoided unless you are sure you understand what you are doing.  The one possible exception: you may wish to increase the length of certain non-memo text fields in some of the data tables if you wish them to be able to hold longer strings.

Any modifications or additions made in your copy of MCMAVD.ACCDB will be lost if and when you replace this file with a new version.  Please do not ask me to consult on the function of your copy of the Database if you have made any modifications to tables in MCMAVD.ACCDB (other than increasing field lengths).

UPDATES TO THIS DATABASE AND SYNCHRONIZATION

CAUTION: If you are reinstalling or updating parts or all of the Database, you can lose data you have entered yourself.

I add to the data and revise various features of this database from time to time, and I make available the updated versions of the various files in it for download.  You may replace MCMAVP.ACCDB (the Program file) without risk to any data changes you may have entered.  Unfortunately, since I have added a few fields from time to time to some of the data tables (or revised their properties), and have also added some new tables, changes which the revised program file expects to find, your old data file (MCMAVD.ACCDB) will probably not remain fully compatible with the new program file.

If you intend to use this database primarily as a Read-Only resource, or you do not mind losing the changes you may have made to the data, you may simply replace your copy of all the Database files with the updated files.

However, if you have made changes in the data in your copy of the Database, I unfortunately cannot ensure that synchronization of newer versions of the Database with your copy of the Database is feasible.  I apologize in advance that I cannot provide a reliable solution to this difficult synchronization problem.

CONVERTING THIS DATABASE TO NEWER VERSIONS OF ACCESS

I have successfully converted older versions of this DB to Access 2007 and run it in Access 2010.  The DB will not function with earlier versions of Access.  Please do not request assistance with conversion to earlier versions of Access, or to Access versions later than 2010.

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

Over the years, I have accumulated comments in the Comment field of the Extant Works form, as well as certain other proprietary information on other forms, including excerpts of copyrighted information for personal use.  It is my intention to avoid distributing copyrighted information beyond "fair use" in the publicly distributed version of  the Database.  Since it is not feasible for me to reconstruct at this point what the origins or copyright status of all these comments are, I apologize that I have found it necessary to strip away most comments about Works and Recordings in the publicly distributed version of this databaseIf, despite these efforts I have made, you believe that the publicly distributed version of the Database contains copyrighted material which is in excess of "fair use", please advise me at the email address below and I will make all reasonable efforts to remove it from further distributions.

LICENSURE AND AUTHORIZATION FOR USE

The McGoodwin Music Database is copyrighted by the author/developer Michael C. McGoodwin.  It is distributed without charge for noncommercial use only.  All of its available files and documentation may be copied and redistributed without charge, provided that

(1) they are not resold for profit,
(2) program distribution includes the small HTML file which links to this manual webpage on the McGoodwin.net website,
(3) the name of the author/developer is not modified or deleted from the program or its documentation, and
(4) the author/developer is explicitly acknowledged in any public or institutional use of the program.

Send all comments and suggestions in writing to the email address below. 

CONTACT INFORMATION AND PROVIDING FEEDBACK

You may reach me at MCM at McGoodwin period NET (please convert this spam-averse address to standard format when using).

In case you are reading a printed version of the program manual, you may view the latest version of this manual at http://www.mcgoodwin.net/pages/mcmavdb_manual.html.

Behavior problems: Bugs, errors, and glitches are inevitable in a database project of this complexity—please report them to me with as much specific detail as you can provide.  My capability in Access programming has improved over the years of development of this project (which began in the Lotus 123 and Access 1.1days), so programming experts will surely find remnants of older code that could stand updating or improvement.  Your professional feedback is welcome.

Database Features:  I would also welcome your suggestions for improvements and additions to consider in future versions of the Database.  If you find errors in this manual or believe something could be expressed more clearly, let me know.  Of course, it would always be appreciated to hear some positive feedback as well.

Musical Information: I would welcome authoritative corrections and additions to the music-related information presented in this database—please provide the source for your authoritative information that you send, if possible.  Please be aware that spellings of foreign words and names vary widely and are not necessarily standardized in English.

Contributions: If you would like to express your appreciation for the efforts that I have made, please make a donation to a suitable university school of music and let me know the details.

Learning More about Using and Programming Access: Sorry, I cannot provide instruction on the standard use of Access and Access menu commands, database design, queries, form design, relationships, VB programming, etc.  If you have questions about this database application, please be certain to read this manual first, certainly the relevant sections at the very least.  If you wish to learn more about programming in MS Access, I recommend the text by Getz, Litwin, and Gilbert, Access 2000 Developer's Handbook Volume 1: Desktop Edition, Sybex, 1999, or one of its successor editions.


TECHNICAL FOOTNOTES

Numeric Encoding of RoleID and Roles for Persons

Here is how person roles are encoded as numeric values in the Persons table (Roles field) and the Who table (RoleID field):

Bit Position Binary Value if Bit(s) Set Roles or RoleID Field
0 1 Composer
1 2 Librettist/Lyricist/Poet
2 4 Conductor
3 8 The principal artist for the recording
4 16 Choreographer
5 32 Director (of a movie or multimedia presentation, etc.)
6-7     Unused currently
8-12 (5 bits) See the table VocalRoles Vocal Roles; e.g.,
7 = Mezzo soprano
0 = None   
13-28 (16 bits) See the table InstrRoles Instrumental Roles; e.g.,
5 = Guitar
33 = Saxophone,
0 = none
29-31    Unused currently

Where to Enter New or Edit/Delete Existing Entries

Here is a brief summary of the locations (forms and/or tables) where changes to some of the fundamental data records and fields may be entered.  Further details are provided throughout this manual for the use of the various forms provided.  Tables that are not explicitly mentioned in this list should not be edited directly—they must be modified programmatically or you may corrupt the Database.  You can view the database relationships (Tools | Relationships) to review how a table field is used across the Database.

Type of Information Where to Add Completely New to the Database Where to Edit Existing Where to Delete Existing from the Database
Persons Recordings form: 
     Add Person
| New
To change Name Spelling and Date:
     Persons Table
To Change "Ever" Roles: 
     Recordings form: Add Person
Not recommended
Works Extant Works form Extant Works form Extant Works form
SubWorks Extant Works form Extant Works form Extant Works form
Recordings Recordings form Recordings form Recordings form
Names of Works and SubWorks Extant Works form:
     Add Work | New [Name]
Choose one (see above for how to choose)
(1) Extant Works form: 
     Edit, or 
(2) Table WNames
Not recommended
Version Descriptions Extant Works form:
     Add Version for This Work | New
Table Versions Not recommended
Performing Groups Recordings form:
     Add Group | New
Table PerfGroups Not recommended
Performing Group Types Table GroupTypes Table GroupTypes Not recommended
Categories of Works Table Categories Table Categories Not recommended
Recording Media Formats Table Formats Table Formats Not recommended
Instrumental Role Categories Table InstrRoles Table InstrRoles Not recommended
Vocal Role Categories Table VocalRoles Table VocalRoles Not recommended
Manufacturers Recordings form
     Add | New [Manufacturer]
Table Mfrs Not recommended
AV Files (1) Recordings form
     AV Files, or
(2) Works subform of Recordings form,
     A button
(1) Recordings form
     AV Files, or
(2) Works subform of Recordings form,
     A button
(1) Recordings form
     AV Files, or
(2) Works subform of Recordings form,
     A button
Recording Track Info Recording Track Info Form Recording Track Info Form Recording Track Info Form
Playlists (not created from Track order) Table Playlists Table Playlists Table Playlists
All Other Tables Not recommended Not recommended Not recommended

Installation of the Database

CAUTION: If you are reinstalling or updating parts or all of the Database, you can lose data you have previously entered, so read these instructions.

There is no automated setup program for installing the Database, but manual installation is straightforward:

You should first create a dedicated directory on your local computer hard drive where you wish to install this database (for example, "C:\MCMAVDB").  This is best done in Windows Explorer.

Assuming you have obtained this database in the usual form, you will find the needed files contained inside a file named MCMAVDB.ZIP. This is a "self-extracting ZIP archive" file.  The files it contains can be extracted by using Windows Explorer.  Place the extracted files in the dedicated directory (folder) you just created for the installation, except as specified in the following table.

Here is a complete list of files used by this database and that should be installed, as well as their descriptions and recommended install locations:

File Description and Recommended Locations
MCMAVD.ACCDB The Database Data File.
This is the Data file holding all the data about composers, works, recordings, etc.—in fact, all data of interest to you in this database.  Any information you enter using the various forms will be stored in this file.  

Single Users: For single users of this database (i.e., only one computer with one installation of the files of  the Database is expected), this file is usually placed in the same directory as the program file MCMAVP.ACCDB, but may be placed elsewhere if you prefer.  If you place this file somewhere else, you will be asked to provide the path to it when the Database starts up.

Multiple Users: If several users with different computers on a network wish to access the same data file, this file (MCMAVD.ACCDB) should be placed in a centralized network location for all to share, even simultaneously.  You will be asked to provide the path to it at program startup.
MCMAVP.ACCDB The Database Program File.
This is the Program file holding all Forms, Queries, Reports, and Visual Basic programming code.  It also holds a few technical tables needed by the program, but none of these contain music-related data.  

Single Users: For single users of this database (i.e., only one computer with one installation of the Database), place this file in the dedicated directory you created.

Multiple Users: Each user and computer on a network all accessing the same centralized data file (MCMAVD.ACCDB) should have a separate copy of the program file MCMAVP.ACCDB installed on his/her local computer in a dedicated directory.  You should never allow more than one user to open the same copy of MCMAVP.ACCDB simultaneously (although of course they will all be able to make simultaneous use of the single centralized data file MCMAVD.ACCDB)
MCMAVDB.ICO The Database Icon file
This file is optional but useful—if specified, the icon appears in the task bar buttons and Alt-Tab icons.  

It is recommended that you place this file in the same directory as your copy of MCMAVP.ACCDB.  

If the icon does not automatically display, you may specify the use and location of this file in the Database as follows:
    File > Options > Current Database > Application Icon  etc.
MCMAVDB_Manual.HTML The Database Manual Stub file
A "stub" file which redirects your browser to the latest version of this manual on the McGoodwin.Net website.  The same webpage can also be displayed from the Main Menu of the Database and from major forms when the button labeled "?" is pressed. 

You should place this stub file in the same directory as MCMAVP.ACCDB.  
VG32.DLL Required Utility File
This file provides utility functions to the Database such as managing numeric encoding of Roles of persons, etc. A full technical description of the contents and functions of this file may be found here (this information would be of interest only to programmers or to persons deeply concerned about security).

If you are installing a new copy of VG32.DLL, be sure to locate and remove any older versions of VG32.DLL that might have already been installed on your hard drives first.  Don't allow versions of different vintages to coexist on your computer.  

VG32.DLL may be placed in any one of the following directory locations:

Option 1:
a. The Windows directory (typically C:\Windows\ or C:\WINNT\), or
b. the windows system directory (typically C:\Windows\System32\ or C:\WINNT\System32\) 

To be sure VG32.DLL will be found by Windows, open a command prompt window and type 

         Path <Enter>

Confirm that the directory you have chosen to place VG32.DLL in is listed in the list of directories displayed (these directories are run together but separated by semicolons).

Option 2:
The same directory where your copy of MS Access is installed (i.e., the directory holding the file msaccess.exe—on my computer it is C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Office\Office14).  If you choose this approach, you should change the startup directory (often labeled "Start In") for the shortcut you are using to start Access, in order to have Access look in this directory. 

Note: It does not work to place this file in the same directory as your copy of MCMAVP.ACCDB.
!MCMAVDB_Notes.TXT Developer Notes
This file has technical information regarding version updates to the Database, etc, and would not usually be of much interest to the casual user.  It records the programming changes I have made in this database as it has evolved.  The most recent changes are also listed below.

 

After installing the needed files in the appropriate locations, create a shortcut (in the Windows Explorer Start menu or on your desktop) which will start your copy of MCMAVP.ACCDB in Access, using a command line resembling the following (all on one line):

"C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Office\Office14\MSACCESS.EXE" "C:\MCMAVDB\MCMAVP.ACCDB" /Excl 

     where

C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Office\Office14\MSACCESS.EXE  is the fullly qualified path of your installed copy of MSAccess.EXE
C:\MCMAVDB\MCMAVP.ACCDB is the fullly qualified path of your copy of the music database program file
/Excl means that you wish to open your copy of this program file in Exclusive mode, not in shared mode
(Note: the data file will be opened shared regardless of this setting.)

Be sure to replace the path names listed here with the actual paths found on your computer. 

Use the shortcut provided above to open MCMAVP.ACCDB.  When MCMAVP.ACCDB first starts up, if it cannot find where you have stored MCMAVD.ACCDB, it will ask you for the full path to MCMAVD.ACCDB (which might, as mentioned above, be out on the network if have installed the Database in a multi-user environment).

Database Maintenance

Compacting the Database

You should compact the two database files periodically to keep them as small and efficient as possible.  You can invoke the Tools | Database Utilities | Compact Database menu item within Access for each of the MDB files while they are open.  Or, to automate and simplify this process, you might wish to create a batch file in the same directory where you installed MCMAVD.ACCDB.  Call it Compact_MCMAVDB.CMD and include the following 2 lines:

    "C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Office\Office14\MSACCESS.EXE " "C:\MCMAVDB\MCMAVP.ACCDB" /Compact
    "C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Office\Office14\MSACCESS.EXE " "C:\MCMAVDB\MCMAVD.ACCDB" /Compact

Adjust the file paths and names. To run this file (after closing all running copies of the Database), just select the batch file and press <Enter>.  Beginning with Access 2000, you can choose the option to always compact a database on closing, so if you do this for both files, you will not need to worry further about compacting the database files.

Backing Up the Database

It goes without saying that if you invest substantial effort in making additions to the Database, you should frequently make a copy on another disk drive or employ some other technique to safeguard your efforts by backing up.  There is no Access command that will save the Database to another filename while it is open.  If you attempt File | Save As, you will merely be saving a copy of one of the database objects contained within the Database.  Therefore you must close the Database and then use copy and paste in Windows Explorer on the file MCMAVD.ACCDB in order to back up the data of the Database to another location.  If you do this, however, be sure you always open the primary copy of your database and not the backup copy.

Benefits of the Relational Database Model

This database is based on a relational model.  This means that all basic information is stored in a series of related tables.  In a "flat file" database (such as you might create in Excel or Word), it is possible to list a series of recordings all having works by composer Ludwig Van Beethoven.  This might work Ok in a small database, but unfortunately there is nothing to prevent you from spelling his name differently each time, and this can lead to confusion and lost recordings.  In a relational database, the table listing recordings stores just a unique ID (the PersonID in this case) that refers to the composer's full name stored in the table Persons.  There is only one name entry for Beethoven in that table, so his name will always be spelled the same for all recordings and his name will only be stored once in the entire database.  Another major advantage in using the relational database model is that there can be "One to Many" relationships.  Thus, any particular recording can be assigned as many performers as you wish.  In this database, the performers applying to a particular recording are stored in the Who table.  (If you tried to do this with a flat file database, you would need to create for recordings in advance a number of columns equal to the maximum number of performers you might ever wish to assign to any recording, and whatever number you selected would be the upper limit for how many performers you could ever list.)  Similarly, you can enter in this database as many works for a particular recording as you wish, without any predetermined limit.  The works present in a recording are stored in the Contents table, but only as IDs that point back to another table holding the particular version of a work you are referring to.  Thus, the full information about a particular work is only entered once (albeit spread over several tables), even though the work may be found on many recordings.  This design assures consistency, reproducibility, and compactness of data entry, and is essential in a large database such as this.

Summary of Revisions Since 2002

This version information is provided primarily for the developer, and is therefore presented in technical terms that are not expected to be fully comprehensible to the user.

Version 6.4 (11/11/02): 

Version 6.5 (12/28/02): 

Version 6.5a (2/5/03): 

Version 6.6 (8/1/04): 

Version 6.7 (12/1/2005): 

Version 7.0 (3/9/2006): 

Version 7.1 (4/22/2006): 

Version 7.2 (5/28/2006): 

Version 7.3 (5/30/2006): 

Version 7.4 (6/27/2006): 

Version 7.5 (7/17/2006): 

Version 7.5b (8/2/2006): 

Version 7.6 (3/12/2007): 

Version 7.7 (4/20/2007): 

Version 7.8 - 8.0b (5/15/2007-5/18/2007): 

Version 8.1 (6/13/07): 

Version 8.2 (8/12/07): 

Version 8.3 (8/30/07): 

Version 8.4 (12/23/07): 

Version 8.5 (6/26/2008 - 9/19/2008): 

Version 8.6 (6/30/2009, etc.):

Version 8.7 (4/9/2010, etc.):

Version 8.8 (5/17/2014):