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|Koran: Selected Tenets and Subjects
Summary by Michael McGoodwin, prepared 2002
The Bismillah, transliterated as "Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim", is translated as
"In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful"
and appears at the beginning of every sura of the Koran except the 9th.
It has been rendered in many different ways calligraphically, of which this is only one version
Abraham: He is cited in many suras (37 etc.) God's test of him with Isaac. (37). Sara his wife laughs when she learns she will bear a child (11). " ' Follow the faith of Abraham. He was an upright man, no idolater.' " (3) His time in Mecca and the first temple ever built for mankind there. (3)
Adoption: Do not name your adopted children after you but retain their father's name. (33)
Adultery: Adulterers get one hundred lashes and can only marry another adulterer (24). Rules for husband charging wife with adultery... Those that defame honorable women get 80 lashes... Do not accept their testimony thereafter. (24).
Alms giving and alms levy: It is the duty of every Muslim to give alms, be charitable (89, 92). Give alms before meeting the Apostle (58). Render the alms levy (73, 24). Give without taunting the recipient, preferably in private (2).
Apostles and Prophets [see also under individual names]: Muhammad/Mohammed is an apostle just like Moses was (73). Noah, Abraham, Jesus. (42) "...Of others [apostles] We have not yet told you." (40) Elias (Elijah) (37, 6). "The apostles We sent before you were but men whom We inspired.... nor were they immortal." (21, 16) Each spoke in the language of his own people. (14) Jacob, Zacharias, John, Jesus, Elisha, Johan, Lot etc. (6) "Thus have We assigned for every prophet and enemy: the devils among men and jinn..." (6) "Say: `We believe in God and that which has been revealed to us; in what was revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the tribes; to Moses and Jesus and the other prophets by their Lord. We make no distinction among any of them [the prophets], and to Him we submit..... `Do you claim [the prophets] were all Jews or Christians?' Say: "Who knows better, you or God?' ... That community has passed away." (2)
Avarice: condemned (104, 102).
Battles, Warriors, Fighting, Opponents, Jihad: Curses the Meccans as the diggers of the trench who tortured believers (in 627 AD, 85). Meccans have been afflicted and ruined, and have blamed each other (68). Muhammad praises those who fight for God's cause (61). Spoils of war go to Muhammad, his kin, the poor etc., not the rich (59, 9). Praise for those who give of their wealth for victory (57). Believers should not fight each other (49). True believers should "fight with their wealth and their person in the cause of God." (49) Desert Arabs who stayed behind and did not fight for the cause will be judged for their hypocrisy and will be punished by God unless they agree to fight for Islam (48). The blind, lame, and sick will not be blamed or punished for not fighting. Fighters are entitled to spoils of war. (48) "When you meet unbelievers in the battlefield strike off their heads and, when you have laid them low, bind your captives firmly. Then grant them their freedom or take a ransom from them, until War shall lay down her burdens. Thus shall you do. Had God willed, He could Himself have punished them." (47). "Should war be decided upon, it would be better for them [the faithful] to be [obedient and] true to God... give in the cause of God." (47). "He that fights for God's cause fights for himself. God needs no man's help." (28) "Permission to take up arms is hereby given to those who are attacked, because they have been wronged... Whoever helps God shall be helped by Him..... Fight for the cause of God with the devotion due to Him. He has chosen you... He has given you the name of Muslims..." (22) Those that have embraced the Faith, and left their homes, and fought for God's cause with their wealth and with their persons, are held in higher regard by God. It is they who shall triumph.... Battle of Hunanin...... Whether unarmed or well-equipped, march on and fight for the cause of God, with your wealth and with your persons." Those who stay behind and do not wish to fight (but are not sick, disabled, or lacking the means) will be punished, will find intense heat in Hell, should be ostracized.... "Prophet, make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites and deal rigorously with them...... Believers, make war on the infidels who dwell around you. Deal firmly with them. Know that God is with the righteous." (9) Battle of Badr [624, against the Quraysh of Mecca]. God aided the faithful by sending angels to help in battle. "Believers, when you encounter the infidels on the march, do not turn your backs to them in flight... If anyone on that day turns his back to them ... he shall incur the wrath of God and Hell shall be his home... It was not you, but God, who slew them [the Quraysh and Meccans]." "A prophet may not take captives until he has fought and triumphed in the land. " [I am not sure of the meaning here.] (8) "How many cities we have destroyed! In the night Our scourge fell upon the, or at midday, when they [the Meccans] were drowsing." (7) "Whoever fights for the cause of God, whether he dies or triumphs, on him We shall bestow a rich recompense.... the infidels fight for the devil.... fight for the cause of God." (4, 2) Show discernment in taking booty from your victims (4). Be armed and always on your guard when you are at prayer (4). Battle of Uhud [in 625, Muslims defeated by Quraysh]. "We alternate these vicissitudes [i.e., defeats like this to you] among mankind so that God may know the true believers and choose martyrs from among you... and that God may test the faithful and annihilate the infidels..... Never think that those who were slain in the cause of God are dead. They are alive, and well provided for by their Lord; pleased with His gifts and rejoicing..." (3, 2) "Slay them [disbelieving aggressors] wherever you find them.... If anyone attacks you, attack him as he attacked you." (2).
Bismillah: The phrase at the beginning of all suras except the ninth (transliterated "Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim" and translated as "In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful"). [See image at top of page]
Blind persons: Allah chastised Muhammad for ignoring a blind person (80).
Book used for Judgement Day: The Siijin is a sealed book containing a record of the sins of each person (83, 84). The righteous have their records in Illiyyun, a sealed book seen only by the faithful (83) God is constantly writing down the deeds of men in these books and they will be used in the Last Judgement. (78).
Cain and Abel: discussed (5).
Cheating: is a sin, you cannot hide it from God (63).
Creation of the world and heavens, etc. (79, 78): He created 7 heavens, one above the other... (67). "It was to reveal the Truth that He created the heavens and the earth..." (39) "We have decked the lower heaven with constellations. They guard it against rebellious devils.... Meteors are hurled at them... Eavesdroppers are pursued by fiery comets." (37). "It is God who splits the seed and the fruit-stone. He brings forth the living from the dead, and the dead from the living." (6) Ascending to the sky, He fashioned it into seven heavens. He has knowledge of all things." (2)
Creation of Man and Procreation: from a clot of blood (96, 75), ejaculated fluid (86), a little germ (80), an humble fluid (77). God created semen (56). God makes seeds grow (56). Created man from potter's clay, and the jinn from smokeless fire (55). Created by God to worship Him (51). From dust... (40). "He created you from a single soul, then from that soul He created its spouse." (39). "God created you from dust, then from a little germ... No female conceives or gives birth without His knowledge." (35, 22) "...from dry clay, from black moulded loam" (15).
David: Uriah and his wife. (38). On David We bestowed Our bounty. (34) David and Goliath (2).
Divorce: Wait to the end of a 3 month waiting period before expelling wife [to exclude pregnancy]. Expel them if they have committed a lewd act. Do not expel a pregnant wife. Do not harass them, and provide reasonable support (65). Condemns idiomatic reference to a mother's back relative to divorce. (58, 33). Penalty for withdrawing a divorce... (58). Divorce before consummation (33). Extensive rules including limits on remarriage after denunciation and/or divorce, discharging the divorced spouse, etc. (2)
Faith, Piety, Devoutness: Muslims must have faith and also do good works (103, 95, 2). "We have given you clothes to cover your shameful parts, and garments pleasing to the eye; but the finest of these is the robe of piety." (7) "Avoid those that treat their faith as a sport and a diversion and are seduced by the life of this world." (6) "When death comes, die true Muslims." (3) All believers shall be rewarded. (2) "There shall be no compulsion in religion." (2)
Fasting: Fast in the daytime during Ramadan. (2) It is Ok to lie with your wives while fasting. (2)
God: There is only one god, and the true believer should not worship others including idols, the alleged son of God, saints, prophets, other gods (73, 39, 9, 1). There is no begotten son of God (i.e., Jesus is not the son of God) and no consort of God (72, 23). He has sovereignty over all things (67). Don't believe in angels as females goddesses, they are not daughters of Allah (53, 43, 16). He is merciful and forgiving for small sins (53). Belief in God is a duty, not a favor done for God. (49). "God does not need you, but you need Him." (47) God alone is the guardian (42). "Had it been God's will to adopt a son, He would have chosen whom He pleased out of His own Creation." (39). Intercession is solely in the hands of God." (39) "God is the light of the heavens and the earth... God speaks in parables to mankind." (24). "Do not barter God's covenant for a trifling price." (?) (16). God knows your innermost thoughts (11). "He has knowledge of all that land and sea contain: every leaf that falls is known to Him. There is no grain in the darkest bowels of the earth, nor anything green or sear, but is recorded in a glorious Book." (6) There is no Trinity (4).
Good Works/Deeds/Proper Behavior: Muslims must do good works and deeds (103, 95, 92, 41). The unjust will be judged on Judgement day (83). Include giving sustenance to the poor, orphans, and captives (76). Each soul is the hostage of its own deeds (74), including prayer, and feeding the destitute. Avoid vain disputes and denying the Day of Reckoning (74). No soul shall bear another man's burden [you are judged solely on your own deeds] (53. 39). Be kind to your parents and do not rebuke them (46). Show kindness to parents. (31). Avoid profanity (23). Always say "If God wills" when speaking of what you intend to do. (18). "Wealth and children are the ornament of this life. But deeds of lasting merit are better rewarded by your Lord and hold for you a greater hope of salvation." (18). Be generous and do not squander your substance. (17). Do not approach the property of orphans except with the best of motives... Give full measure. (17, 4). Do not take oaths with mutual deceit. (16). "He has forbidden you carrion, blood and the flesh of swine" (16, 6, 5, 2) Also forbidden [for eating are] those [animals] killed by a fall or mangled by beasts of prey, unless out of necessity... (6) "Dress well when you attend your mosques. Eat and drink, but avoid excess..... Do not corrupt the earth after it has been purged of evil." (7) "Sin neither openly nor in secret." (6) No lewdness (6). Standards of cleanliness and washing after intercourse, etc. (5, 4) "Vie with each other in good works" (5) Do not break an oath, drink alcohol, gamble, use divining arrows (5). Punish male and female homosexuality (4). No suicide. No vanity or covetousness (4). No drunkenness (4). Be just and avoid false testimony. (4) Do not live on usury (3, 2). Put loan contracts in writing using either 2 men or one man and 2 women as witnesses (2). Do not hoard (3). "Attend to your prayers, render the alms levy, and kneel with those who kneel." (2) Avoid gambling and drinking (2).
Heaven/Paradise: The righteous and faithful will have gardens of Eden with streams (98, 88). The life to come will be richer (93). Soft couches, goblets with refreshing liquid, silken cushions, carpets (88). Faces with the glow of joy (83). Nectar, waters of Tasnim (83). Vineyards, high-bosomed maidens for companions (78), gushing spring, robes of silk, shade, fruits, ginger-flavored water, boys graced with eternal youth, garments of fine green silk and rich brocade, bracelets of silver (76, 44). A blissful state, clusters of fruit within his reach (69). The foremost will have jeweled couches, wine (that will not take away the reason), fruits and fowls, and "the dark-eyed houris, chaste as virgin pearls: a guerdon for their deeds..... We created the houris and made them virgins, loving companions..." (56). Bashful virgins whom neither man nor jinnee will have touched before. Virgins as fair as corals and rubies... Dark-eyed virgins, sheltered in their tents... they shall recline on green cushions and fine carpets (55). The righteous will wed dark-eyed houris (52). There shall wait on them young boys of their own, as fair as virgin pearls. They will converse... (52). Rivers of milk, of wine, and of honey (47). "We shall wed them [the righteous] to dark-eyed houris." (44). "Enter Paradise, you and your spouses, in all delight". Golden dishes and golden cups. (43). "Admit them [believers and righteous], Lord, to the gardens of Eden which You have promised them, together with all the righteous among their fathers, their spouses, and their descendants." (40) "...The gardens of Eden, whose gates shall open wide to receive them. Reclining there with bashful virgins for companions..." (38). "They shall sit with bashful, dark-eyed virgins, as chaste as the sheltered eggs of ostriches" (37) "Together with their spouses, they shall recline in shady groves upon soft couches." (37). "Spouses of perfect chastity." (4) "Wedded to chaste spouses." (2)
Hell: Will have burning fire (98), drink hot liquid from a seething fountain and eat bitter thorns (88), decaying filth (78), chains and fetters (76). "I will surely cast him into the fire ... angels to guard the Fire..." (74), choking food and harrowing torment (73). A chain 70 cubits long (69). Pitch black smoke (56). "The fruit of the Zaqqum tree shall be the sinner's food." (44).
Inheritance and Bequests: "Blood relations are closer to one another than to other believers ... although you are permitted to do your friends a kindness." (33) Do not give the feeble minded their property but maintain them and clothe them from the proceeds. (4) A guardian should not touch the property of an orphan. "A male shall inherit twice as much as a female..." (4) If you die with children, your wife gets 1/8 of the estate, without children she gets 1/4 (4). If a man dies childless and has only a sister, she gets half the estate whereas if he has a brother, the brother is the sole heir. (4) Bequeath property equitably to parents and to children. (2)
Ishmael: "He too was a man or his word, and apostle, and a prophet." (19, 6) "We [God] enjoined Abraham and Ishmael to cleanse Our House [the Ka`hah or Sacred Mosque] for those who walk round it, who meditate in it, and who kneel and prostrate themselves." (2)
Islam [Submission]: "The only true faith in God's sight is Islam.... `I have submitted to God and so have those that follow me' " (3) "When his [Abraham's] Lord said to him: `Submit', he answered: `I have submitted to the Lord of the Universe.' " (2)
Jews, Christians, and Scripture: The "People of the Book" [apparently Jews and Christians] include some true believers who worship the same God as Muslims, but many have gone astray, twisted the scriptures, etc. and will be punished by God (98). God has sworn a covenant with you. (68). Rejects doctrine of Jews as the chosen people, and says they will not wish for death because of the wrongs they have done [and the dire punishment to come]. (62). God punished unbelieving Jews with their exile (in Babylonia; this sura condones Muhammad's expedition against the Jews and allowed Muslims to cut down their palm-trees and their entitlement to other spoils of war) (59). "The People of the Book have no control over the grace of God; that grace is in His hands alone." (57). "We gave the Book to the Israelites and bestowed on them wisdom and prophethood. We provided them with wholesome things and exalted them above the nations. Yet it was not till knowledge had been vouchsafed them that they disagreed maliciously among themselves." (45). Mary's son "was but a mortal whom We favoured and made an example to the Israelites... He is a portent of the Hour of Doom..." He [Jesus] came to give you wisdom... (43) "Call men to the true Faith... and say 'I believe in all the scriptures that God has revealed.... God is our Lord and your Lord. We have our own works and you have yours; let there be no argument between us.' " (42). "We gave the Torah to Moses, but contentions arose about it." (41). "We gave the Book to Moses ... and made it a guide for the Israelites." (32) "Be courteous when you argue with the People of the Book... Say 'We believe in that which has been revealed to us and which was revealed to you. Our God and your God is one. To Him we submit." (29) "We answered his [Zacharias'] prayer and gave him John [John the Baptist, Zacharias's son] ... the woman [Mary] who kept her chastity." (21) Mary, John, Jesus speaks in the cradle; Sects (19). Assyrians and Roman sent against them. (16) The Jews wronged themselves (16). We will surely punish the schismatics [are these Jews and Christians?], who have broken up the scriptures into separate parts, believing in some and denying others." (15) "I will show mercy .... to those that shall follow the Apostle--the Unlettered [or Gentile] Prophet [?Muhammad]--whom they shall find described to them in the Torah and the Gospel." "Yet among the people of Moses there are some who preach the truth and act justly." (7) "We gave the persecuted people dominion over the eastern and the western lands which We had blessed..... We led the Israelites across the sea..." (7) "We forbade the Jews all animals with undivided hoofs and the fat of sheep and oxen... Such is the penance We imposed on them for their misdeeds." [whereas Muslims are forbidden only carrion, blood, and swine.] (6) "The scriptures were revealed only to two communities before us." [Jews and Christians] (6) "But because they [Israelites] broke their covenant We laid on them Our curse and hardened their hearts. They have tampered with words out of their context and forgotten much of what they were enjoined. You will ever find them deceitful, except for a few of them. But pardon them and bear with them... With those who said they were Christians We made a covenant also, but they too have forgotten much of what they were exhorted to do. Therefore We stirred among them enmity and hatred, which shall endure till the Day of Resurrection..... People of the Book! Our apostle has come to reveal to you much of what you have hidden of the Scriptures..... Unbelievers are those who declare 'God is the Messiah, the son of Mary.' " Jews and Christians are not God's loved ones. (5) "They listen to falsehoods and practice what is unlawful.... But if you do act as their judge, judge them with fairness.... [Jews] are no true believers.... We decreed for them a life for a life, etc.... But if a man charitably forbears from retaliation, his remission shall atone for him." (5) "Take neither the Jews nor the Christians for your friends. Whoever of you seeks their friendship shall become one of their number..." (5) "If the People of the Book accept the true faith and keep from evil, We will pardon them their sins and admit them to the gardens of delight. If they observe the Torah and the Gospel and what has been revealed to them from their Lord [including the Koran], they shall enjoy abundance from above and from beneath..." (5) "You will find that the most implacable of men in their enmity to the faithful are the Jews and the pagans, and that the nearest in affection to them are those who say: 'We are Christians.' " (5) J&C must believe in the Koran or go to Hell. (4). "They [People of the Book" ... uttered a monstrous falsehood against Mary. They declared: 'We have put to death the Messiah...' They did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, but they thought they did." (4) "God exalted ... the descendants of `Imran" [Mary's father and/or husband]." Story of Jesus' virgin birth, his works, and the birth of John the Baptist's birth (3) Some [J&Cs] are true believers, but most of them are evil-doers.... When evil befalls you [true believers] they rejoice." (3) "But they cast the Scriptures over their backs and sold them for a paltry price [?meaning].... Some there are among the People of the Book who truly believe in God...These shall be rewarded by their Lord." (3) Woe to false scribes (2). "You broke your covenant except a few, and paid no heed." (2) "God's curse be on the infidels." (2) The envy shown by the People of the Book (2). Jews and Christians each believe the other is misled. (2) "My [God's] covenant does not apply to the evil doers." (2)
Jinn [spirits inhabiting the earth, assuming various forms incl. human, and exerting supernatural powers]: The Jinn should adhere to the Koran. Men should not turn to them for help or seek with them to protect themselves from God. (72). They were created by God to worship Him (51). They have listened to the Koran and answered the call of God and believe in him. (46) They too will go to hell. (11) "Yet they regard the jinn as God's equals, though He Himself created them..." Jinn will be punished (6)
Job: "We restored to him his people..." " 'Take a bunch of twigs and beat with it' " [ i.e., Ok to break your rash oath to give your wife a hundred blows and instead give her one blow with a bunch of a hundred twigs]". (38)
Jonah: cited in several suras (10, etc.)
Joseph: His story (11). Potiphar [unnamed] believes Joseph over his wife, and she later confesses to trying to seduce him. (11).
Judgement Day (Last Judgement and Resurrection): [These items are discussed in many other suras as well.] This day will surely come, the dead will be restored to life (Resurrection 86, 80, 79, 50), and believers will go to Paradise/Heaven while unbelievers go to eternal damnation in Hell (100, 101, 99, 82). The sky will be rent apart (84). Believers will receive their book [the detailed chronicle of their good or sinful actions and thoughts] in the right hand and receive a lenient reckoning, but unbelievers will be given their book behind their backs and burn in Hell (84). Infant girls who were slain [because of a preference for male offspring] will be identified and the murderer punished (81). Dread blast of the trumpet (80, 79, 74). There will be no refuge (75). Each man will be told of all his deeds from first to last (75). A mounting torment (74). This world is but a sport and a diversion (57, 47). The moon is cleft in two (54). "Their faces blackened, those who uttered falsehoods about God." (39) "It is the life to come that is the true life." (29). "As for the true believers, the Jews, the Sabaeans, the Christians, the Magians, and the pagans, God will judge them on the Day of Resurrection." (22). Evil shall be rewarded with evil (10).
Killing: "You shall not kill your children [unwanted females] for fear of want.... (17, 6) You shall not kill any man whom God has forbidden you to kill, except for a just cause." (17, 6). "It is unlawful for a believer to kill another believer, accidents excepted. He that accidentally kills a believer must free one Muslim slave and pay blood-money to the family of the victim..... He that kills a believer by design shall burn in Hell for ever." (4)
Koran: Consists of infallible decrees (98, 59). The angels and the Spirit come down with each decree (97). Be patient as the revelation gradually is presented to you (76). Recite verses as much as you can remember (73). There are many warnings about those that disparage the Koran's truthfulness (69). Koran speaks in parables (59). Do not say Muhammad simply invented it (52). The Koran confirms the Book of Moses [Torah] and is revealed in Arabic to forewarn the wrongdoers. (46). It is a scripture revealed since the time of Moses (46). "We revealed it on a blessed night to give warning..." (44). "It is a transcript of the eternal book in Our keeping, sublime, and full of wisdom." (43) "We have revealed to you an Arabic Koran, that you may warn the mother-city [Mecca]." (42). "A book of revelations well expounded, an Arabic Koran for men of knowledge. It proclaims good news and a warning..." (41, 36). It is a guide and a healing balm. (41). "A Koran in the Arabic tongue, free from any flaw..." (39) "What We have revealed to you in the Book is the truth confirming previous scriptures." (35). Koran is revealed in stages "so that We may sustain your heart." (25, 20). It is "shorn of contradictions". (17) A code of judgements. (13) Proof that the Koran is not invented. (11) Muhammad cannot change what is revealed to him. (10) It fully explains the scriptures. (10). "When the Koran is recited, listen to it in silence so that you may be shown mercy." (7) Some verses are ambiguous and the meaning is known only to God (3). It is incomparable (2). Gabriel has revealed it to Muhammad (2).
Lying: condemned, along with scorn (45).
Martyrs: "As for those who are slain in the cause of God, He will not allow their works to perish. He will vouchsafe them guidance and ennoble their state; He will admit them to Paradise". (47).
Mary: Imran's daughter [and mother of Jesus] "who preserved her chastity and into whose womb We breathed our spirit" (66).
Mockery: Believers should not mock or defame each other (49).
Moses: cites how Pharaoh was punished (smote) by God for his evil against Moses (79, 40). He and Aaron favored by God (37). Various details of his story (28, 27, 26, 20, 18, 10, 7, 5), 2. The Tablets [of the Ten commandments] (7).
Muhammad: is the Messenger of God. God's apostle (48). God has guided him, enriched him, given him shelter as an orphan (93). He is sublime (68). His coming as Ahmad was prophesied by Jesus (61). Muhammad should accept any woman who comes to him pledging her allegiance (60). He is divinely inspired (53) by Gabriel (19). He has seen the Lord's signs (53). Believers should show respect and speak softly in his presence (49). "We have taught him no poetry, nor does it become him to be a poet." (36) "He is the Apostle of God and the Seal [last one?] of the Prophets." (33) "Believers, do not enter the houses of the Prophet for a meal without waiting for the proper time... Do not engage in familiar talk... If you ask his wives for anything, speak to them from behind a curtain. This is more chaste for your hearts and their hearts.... You must not speak ill of God's apostle..." (33) Never have you [Muhammad] read a book before this [the Koran], nor have you ever transcribed one..." (29). "Glory be to Him who made His servant [Muhammad] go by night from the Sacred Temple [Mecca] to the farther Temple [Jerusalem, and thence to the Throne of God accompanied by Gabriel]." (16) Companions despaired while in a cave with him. (9) "I was commanded to be the first to submit...... the first of the Muslims." (6) "He that obeys the Apostle obeys God." (4)
Muhammad's Wives: God absolves Muhammad from oaths in support of his wives [in particular to Hafsah though not so named]. His wife [Hafsah] violated a confidence by confiding [to Aishah] that Muhammad had been with a Coptic slave [Mary]. God protects Muhammad from his wives, and "will give him in your place better wives than yourselves" [if he divorces any of them]. (66). "I am no prodigy among the apostles; nor do I know what will be done with me or you. I follow only what is revealed to me, and my only duty is to give plain warning." (45). "Wives of the Prophet, you are not like other women. If you fear God, do not be too complaisant in your speech, lest the lecherous-hearted should lust after you. Show discretion in what you say. Stay in you homes and do not display your finery as women used to do in the days of ignorance. Attend to your prayers, give alms and obey God and His apostle.... God seeks only to remove uncleanness from you and to purify you.... It should become legitimate for true believers to wed the wives of their adopted sons [i.e., Zayd] if they divorced them." (33) It is lawful for Muhammad to have as wives "to whom you have granted dowries and the slave-girls whom God has given you as booty; the daughters of your paternal and maternal uncles and of your paternal and maternal aunts [i.e., first cousins] who fled with you; and any believing woman who gives herself to the Prophet and whom the Prophet wishes to take in marriage. This privilege is yours [Muhammad's] alone, being granted to no other believer... You may put off any of your wives you please and take to your bed any of them you please... It shall be unlawful for you to take more wives or to change your present wives for other women... unless they are slave-girls whom you own.... Nor shall you ever wed his [Muhammad's] wives after him.... It shall be no offence for the Prophet's wives to be seen unveiled by their fathers, their sons, their brothers, their brother's sons, their sister's sons, their women, or their slave-girls." (33) "I am no more than one who gives warning and good news to true believers." (7)
Noah: repeatedly cited as a believer who warned his unbelieving fellow men, finally calling on God to destroy them for their idol worship (71, 40, 37, 26, 11).
Pilgrimage (Hajj) and Sacred Mosque (Kabaa/Ka`bah): "We prepared for Abraham the site of the Sacred Mosque... Exhort all men to make the pilgrimage... Circle the Ancient House..." (22) Kill no game on Hajj (5). Do not sacrifice animals at the Ka`bah (5). Abstention during Hajj and alternatives to going on this journey. (2).
Prayer: Don't mix it with business (62). Make room in your assemblies for others (58). Prostate yourselves before God (53) and be marked on your face from this (48). Show humility. (32). "Give glory to God evening and morning. Praise be to Him in the heavens and the earth, at twilight and at noon." (30) "Turn your face towards the Holy Mosque..." (2)
Predestination: [Note: I am not sure if this doctrine is actually present as such]: "You cannot choose except by the will of God" (76). "Every misfortune that befalls the earth, or your own persons, is ordained before We bring it into being." (57). "Men cannot forestall their doom [if they have been sinners?], nor can they retard it." (15) "We have predestined for Hell numerous jinn and men. They have hearts they cannot comprehend with; they have eyes they cannot see with.... they are like beasts..." (7)
Pride, Arrogance, Vanity: Pride is a sin (75). "Do not treat men with scorn, nor walk proudly on the earth: God does not love the arrogant and the vainglorious. Rather let your stride be modest." (31)
Purity: Keep the soul pure and be pious (91, 87).
Repentance: Seek forgiveness of God (73). "He accepts the repentance of His servants, and pardons their sins." (42).
Right and Wrong: God has given man power to distinguish these (90). "We gave Moses the Scriptures, and knowledge of right and wrong, so that you [J&Cs] might be rightly guided." (2)
Satan: "The angels all prostrated themselves [before God's creation of Adam] except Satan, who was too proud, for he was an unbeliever... Satan replied, 'I am nobler than he. You created me from fire, but him from clay... I will seduce them all [men] except you faithful servants.' " (38, 15, 7) "I will waylay Your servants as they walk on Your straight path..." Satan seduced Adam and Eve. (7, 2)
Sects and Factions: "Observe the faith and do not divide yourselves into factions.... Yet men did not divide themselves, through their own wickedness, until knowledge was given them." (42). "Do not divide your religion into sects." (30, 6)
Signs for the Believers: Cites signs given for Abraham, Moses and Pharaoh (51). Night and Day, sun and the moon, resurrection of the earth produced by rain. (41). Phases of the moon; "the sun is not allowed to overtake the moon, nor does the night outpace the day"; the ark (36). Ships on the ocean; waves. (31). Lightning (30, 13) and Thunder (13). "Behold then the tokens of God's mercy; how He resurrects the earth after its death." (30) The son of Mary and his mother (23). Mountains, stars (16).
Sinful tribes, Ruined Cities, etc.: Those punished for their sins include Ad and Thamud (89, 51, 11), Pharaoh (69, 54, 44), Noah's people (54), the people of Lot [at Sodom and Gomorrah] (54, 27, 26, 15, 11). Midian (11). Warns Meccans against spurning Muhammad (51). Warned Antioch? (36). Sheba (34) and their Queen, who worshipped the sun (27). Errant nations have always been forewarned before being destroyed by God. (26, 9, 7)
Slander: condemned (104, 68).
Slaves: [see also under Muhammad wives and other topics] "Do you slaves share with you on equal terms the riches which We have given you?" (30) You shall not force you slave-girls into prostitution in order that you may enrich yourselves, if they wish to preserve their chastity. (24) Ok to marry slave girls. (4)
Solomon: "He was a good and faithful servant." (38, 34) Rejects the gold offered by the Queen of Sheba, wins her submission to God (27). "Not that Solomon was an unbeliever: it is the devils who are unbelievers." (2)
Stealing and Theft: "As for the man or woman who is guilty of theft, cut off their hands to punish them..." (5)
Suffering: God created suffering intentionally to try man (90).
Unbelievers, Idolaters, etc.: You [believers] are not their keeper (88), let them be a while (86, 68), they will be punished by God in Hell. Those who rebuke Muhammad for his teachings will be dragged by the forelock by God to punishment (96). Those who deny his revelations will go to Hell (90). Those who torture believers will be avenged by God, rewarded with the scourge of the Conflagration (85). Mockers and those who make jests against the faithful will be punished (83). Your duty is only to warn unbelievers (79). Leave their company without recrimination (73). Hypocrites use their faith as a disguise and bar others from the path. (63, 9) Do not befriend unbelievers (60). Keep believing women away from infidels. Do not maintain a marriage with an infidel woman (60). Watch out for those who befriend a people with whom God is angry, or those who use faith as a disguise (58). Some are bigots (48). Some scorn God's revelations and they will be punished (31). Treaties made with idolaters who have honoured their treaties should be maintained... "So long as they keep faith with you, keep faith with them..... But if, after coming to terms with you, they break their oaths, and revile your faith, make war on the leaders of unbelief... It ill becomes the idolaters to visit the mosques of God..... Idolaters are unclean. Let them not approach the Sacred Mosque..." (9) "When the sacred months are over slay the idolaters wherever you find them. Arrest them, besiege them, and lie in ambush everywhere for them. If they repent and render the alms levy, allow them to go their way. God is forgiving and merciful.... But you may fight against the idolaters in all these [sacred] months." (9) "There are those who built a mosque from mischievous motives, to spread unbelief and disunite the faithful." (9) Angels "shall strike them [hypocrites] on their faces and their backs" (8). "Those that make war against God and His apostle and spread disorder in the land shall be slain or crucified or have their hands and feet cut off on opposite sides, or be banished from the land..... except those that repent before you reduce them. For you must know that God is forgiving and merciful." (5) Heretics will burn in Hell. (4, 3) "Do not be deceived by the fortunes of the unbelievers in the land." (3)
Women [see also Muhammad Wives above]: "Would God choose daughters [female angels] for Himself and sons for you [pagan Arabs or Meccans] alone? Yet when the birth of a girl is announced to any of them his countenance darkens and he is filled with gloom." (43) "Did We create the angels female?... Would He [God] choose daughters rather than sons? What has come over you [the unbelievers] that you should judge so ill?" (37). "If you [believers] ask his [Muhammad's] wives for anything, speak to them from behind a curtain. This is more chaste for your hearts and their hearts... Prophet, enjoin you wives, your daughters, and the wives of true believers to draw their veils close round them. That is more proper, so that they may be recognized and not be molested." (33) "He [God] created for you spouses from among yourselves, that you might live in peace with them, and planted love and kindness in your hearts." (30) Unclean women are for unclean men (24). "Enjoin believing women to turn their eyes away from temptation and to preserve their chastity; not to display their adornments (except such as are normally revealed); to draw their veils over their bosoms and not to display their finery except to their husbands, their fathers, ... , male attendants lacking in natural vigour, and children who have no carnal knowledge of women." (24) Take in marriage those among you who are single and those of your male and female slaves who are honest... Let those who cannot afford to marry live in continence..." (24) "It shall be no offence for old spinsters who have no hope of marriage to discard their cloaks without revealing their adornments [breasts?]. Better if they do not discard them." (24) "Blessed are the believers ... who restrain their carnal desires (except with their wives and slave-girls)" (23). "He [God] created his [Adam's] spouse, so that he might find comfort in her." (7) Women are eligible wives that are "believers and the free women from among those who were given the Book before you..." (5) Honor mothers (4) Ok to have up to 4 wives (4). Lewd acts forbidden (4). You cannot inherit the widow of a deceased kinsman against her will. (4) Bans on incest (4). "If any one of you cannot afford to marry a free believing woman, let him marry a slave-girl who is a believer... Give them a dowry in all justice...... but if you abstain, it will be better for you." (4) "Men have authority over women because God has made the one superior to the other... Good women are obedient. They guard their unseen parts because God has guarded them. As for those from whom you fear disobedience, admonish them, forsake them in beds apart, and beat [or scourge or strike with a feather] them" (4) "A believing slave-girl is better than an idolatress..." Don't marry unconverted pagan women or idolaters. (2) Menstruation is unclean, keep aloof from women during menses. (2) "Women are your fields: go, then, into your fields whence you please." (2) "Men have a status above women." (2) Maintaining nursing mothers (2). Widows and divorce [see also under Divorce] (2).
McGoodwin Koran and Islam Resources Page
(1) Quotations are taken from N. J. Dawood translation in Penguin Books edition copyright 1999.
(2) The image of the Bismillah at the top of this page has been modified from that on the eMuslim site.